Pharm Exam 2

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Pharm Exam 2
2011-03-19 12:32:00

chapter 6 objectives and review
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  1. a relative reduction in polarity of the nerve membrane allowing for impulse conduction
  2. the injection of a local anesthetic solution directly into or adjacent to he tisusue to be treated
    inflitration anesthesia
  3. a reversile loss of sensation in a defined area associated with the transient inhibition of peripheral nerve conduction
    local anesthesia
  4. the injection of a local anesthetic agent into or around peripheral nerve trunks or nerve plexus
    nerve plock anesthesia
  5. numbness or tingling following return of sensation to an area or following injury to a nerve
  6. the first drug in a class of drugs to which all other drugs in the same class are compared
  7. LA
    local anesthetic
  8. PABA
    para aminobenzoic acid
  9. what ist he mechanism of action of LA?
    prevents impulse transmission (propagation of action potentials) by blocking individual sodium channels in neuronal membranes
  10. what is the LA of choice in dentistry?
    lidocaine hydrochloride
  11. what are the 4 primary line of treatment LAs?
    • lidocaine
    • mepivacaine
    • prilocaine
    • articaine
  12. what ist he secondary line of treatment for LA?
  13. what is the tertiary line of treatment for LA?
    procaine (not available in dental cartridges)
  14. how are LAs classified?
    • Ester-procaine, benzocaine
    • Amide-lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine and articaine
  15. what is the adverse effects of lidocaine?
    toxic dose causes heart to stop beating, it initially excites CNS and then is followed by depression of the CNS and death (fun stuff when can I start injecting my pts)
  16. t/f mepivacaine is not associated wtih unique adverse effects
    true HA did i trick ya?
  17. when is prilocaine contraindicated?
    with a pt that has a history of methemoglobinemia, sicle cell anemia, anemai or cardiac or respiratory failur associated with hypoxia
  18. t/f articane has an increase incidence or paresthesia and may produce methemoglobinemia
  19. t/f bupivacaine blocks cardiac muscle sodium channels and may trigger severe ventricular arrythmias and impair psychomotor skills
  20. t/f procaine is the LA of choice because of its low incidence of allergic reactions
    FALSE, high incidence of allergic reactions not used in dental
  21. what are the signs and symptoms of methemoglobinemia?
    cyanosis, nausea, sedation, seizures and coma
  22. what is the cardiac dose for vasoconstrictors?
  23. when is a low concentration of vasoconstrictor used (7 types of pts)
    • high BP 180/110
    • cardiovascular disease
    • unstable angina pectoris
    • decompensated heart failure
    • severe valvular disease
    • symptomatic ventricular arryhthmia w/heart disease
    • hyperthyroidism
  24. what is the first topical LA?
  25. what is the first injectaable LA?
    procaine (novacain)
  26. what are the six parts of an LA?
    • hydrochloric acid
    • sterile water
    • hydrogen chloride
    • sodium chloride
    • vasoconstrictors
    • mebatisulfite
  27. what forms the water soluble salts in the anesthetic carpule
    hydrochloric acid
  28. what adjust the pH in the LA?
    hydrogen chloride
  29. what produces the isotonicity of the LA
    sodium chloride
  30. what slows the rate of absorption in the LA?
    vasoconstrictors 9epi or levonordefrin)
  31. what is the antioxidizing agent to minimize oxidation of vasoconstrors in the LA?
  32. whod dose the LA numb the nerve?
    blocks individual sodium channels from depolarization
  33. what is the safest topical agent
    benzocaine (ester and mostly likely to cause an allergy)
  34. what LA is used with prego women?
    lido 2% 1:100K epi (least amount
  35. what is the cardiac dose for a controlled cardiac pt?
    any dose (.2mg)
  36. what is the cardiac dose for a uncontrolled cardiac pt or compromised pt?