Nutrition Chapter 5

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Author:
ckluckner
ID:
73849
Filename:
Nutrition Chapter 5
Updated:
2011-03-19 13:23:55
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Nutrition Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates
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  1. Simple Carbs
    Monosaccharides and Pisacchorides
  2. Complex Carbs
    Polysaccharides, Glycogen, and Fiber
  3. Monosaccharides (3 examples)
    • Glucose (blood sugar)
    • Fructose (fruit sugar)
    • Galactose (part of lactose)
  4. Disaccharides (3 examples)
    • Two monosaccharides linked by condensation reaction
    • 1. Maltose
    • -Glucose and Glucose alpha-bond
    • 2. Lactose
    • -Galactose and Glucose beta-bond
    • 3. Sucrose
    • -Glucose and Fructose beta-bond
  5. Digestible Polysaccharides
    • Starch
    • -Amylose (straight chain)
    • -Amylopectin (branched)
    • Glycogen
    • -storage form of glucose in human body
    • -Liver Glycogen-blood sugar
    • -Muscle Glycogen- muscle use
  6. Indigestible Polysaccharides
    • Total Fiber
    • -dietary fiber
    • -functional fiber
    • Soluble Fiber
    • -pectim, gum, mucilage
    • Insolible fiber
    • -cellulose, hemicellulase
  7. Nutritive Sweeteners
    • Mono and Disaccharaides
    • High Fructose Corn Syrup
    • Sugar Alcohols
  8. Alternative Sweeteners
    • (Yeild no energy, ADI)
    • Saccharin- Cannot be used in cooking
    • Aspartame- Cannot be used in cooking (Contains Phenyalanine)
    • CAN BE USED IN COOKING
    • Acesulfamine K
    • Sucralose
  9. Recommended Carb Intake (RDA)
    • RDA- 130grams
    • 45-65% total energy needs
    • Limit added sugars
  10. Recommended Fiber Intake
    • Women over 50- 21
    • Women under 50- 25
    • Men over 50- 30
    • Men under 50- 38
  11. Type 1 Diabetes-Mellitus
    • Insulin producing cells in pancreas are destroyed
    • Insulin shots required
    • Diet must be coordinated with insulin (exchange system, carb counting)
    • Increased risk for cardiovascular disease, blindness, and kidney disease
  12. Type 2 Diabetes- Mellitus
    • Caused by insulin resistance
    • Most common type of diabetes (around 90%)
    • Treatment:
    • -Diet: carb modification
    • -Exercise: imporve BG control, control weight
    • -Medications: may include insulin

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