Card Set Information
Two groups of Archaea
1.) Euyarcheota (broader metabolism)- Methanogens
2.) Crenarchaeota - thermophiles that metabolize sulfer (anaerobic reduction or aerobic respiration)
What makes archaea biochemistry unique?
no peptidoglycan - pseudomurein
differences in glycolytic pathway
How are Archael lipids different?
L-glycerol instead of D
links, not ester
chains of lipids - isoprene and all
Archaeal Genome vs Bacterial vs Eukarya
: Circular, have operons
: Introns, TATA, TFB, prot similiar to histones
Unique lipid - Crenarchaeol
Most live at high temps and anaerobic/acidic env.
utilize minerals that were reduced by high temp water
Desulfurococcales Characteristics + ex
No cell wall - S-layer (mono prot or glycoprot)
Reduce sulfer at high temps
: Ignicoccus pyrodictium
Sulfolobales Characteristics + ex
Oxidize sulfer at high temp
produce sulfuric acid
Needs heat and acidity, grows easily with conditions
No cell wall - thick S-layer
Crenarchaeota - Which kind are found where? What temps? Examples
High numbers in ocean, amount depends on season
- ocean, plant roots ex
- ice and seawater in antarctica ex
: cenarachaeum (deepwater sponge)
Oxidize ammonia, and fix CO2
common in ocean and soil
Needs anaerobic env
CO2, acetate, formate=
- creates methane
- hold c during process - coenzyme M, methanofuran, cofactor F420
Where are methanogens found?
Anaerobic env - landfill, marine sediment/flood soil, Rumen, Human gut
Euryarchaeota: Halophile characteristics
1.5 M NaCl
(grow best at 4.3 M=pH 7)
of DNA in high salt)
elongated, round, flattened shape
What is Bacteriorhodopsin?
found in Euryarchaeota, and pumps out H+
What is Halorhodopsin?
Pumps in Cl-
Where does power for flagellum come from?
Na gradients created by a proton gradient that is used to pump out NA