MA 201 Body Structure

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Shutrbug20
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73888
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MA 201 Body Structure
Updated:
2011-03-20 18:53:54
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Cells
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Chapter 11 Unit 1
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  1. Anatomy
    • Study of the physical structure of the body and its organs
    • Describes framework and physical characteristics
  2. Gross Anatomy
    Seen with naked eye (inspection, disection)
  3. Microscopic Anatomy
    Seen with microscopes
  4. Physiology
    • Study of the function of the body, cell tissues, and organs
    • Interrelationships of functioning structures of the body
    • Explains how everything works together to support life
  5. Cytology
    Study of cell life and formations
  6. Histology
    Study of microscopic structure of tissue
  7. Patho
    Study of disease and response to disease
  8. Reference To Body
    Patients view - Anotomical Position
  9. Cell
    • Basic building block
    • Requires nutrients and O2 to survive
    • Specific functions
    • Produces heat and energy
    • Gives off waste
  10. Cell Functions
    • Secrete materials (mucus)
    • Recieve and transmit impulses
    • Enable us to move
    • Carry nutrients and O2
    • Clot blood
    • Destroy bacteria
  11. Cytoplasm
    Cell fluid
  12. Cell Membrane
    • Separates cell from environment
    • Consists of protiens and fat molecules
    • Controls what enters / leaves cell
    • Regulates cellular function
  13. Organelles
    • Minute bodies within the Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosomes
    • Centriole
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes
  14. Nucleus
    • Control center of the cell
    • Surrounded by own nuclear membrane
    • Controls mitosis (cell division)
  15. Nucleus Characteristics
    • Contains chromosomes (rod shaped) Deoxyribonecleic Acid (DNA)
    • Humans have 23 pairs
    • Stores hereditary material from one gen to next
    • 23 pair = sex xx-girl, xy-boy
  16. Zygote
    • First cell division after egg and sperm unite
    • new chomosome order made (you are you)
  17. DNA
    • Carries all of genetic info necessary for cell functions
    • Composed of sugar, phosphate, adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine
  18. Genes
    Units of instruction, produce / influence characteristics or traits and capabilities of an organism
  19. Meiosis
    Each parent chromosome halved, shuffled, and then combined during fertilization (unique combonation)
  20. Mitosis
    • Division of cells controlled by nucleus of the cell
    • Purpose to provide exact duplication of cells for growth and repair of the body
  21. Pinocytic Vesicles
    • Pocket in cell membrane, permit large molecules (protien/fat) to enter
    • Pocket closes forming vacule (bubble) in cytoplasm called endocytosis
  22. Phagocytosis
    Cell eating
  23. Pinocytosis
    If water trapped in pocket instead of protien/fat - Cell Drinking
  24. Exocytosis
    • Reverse of drinking/eating
    • From cytoplasm to out of cell (waste)
  25. 6 Cell Membrane Processes
    • 1. Diffusion - gas, liquid, solid distributed evenly
    • 2. Osmosis - fluids through selective permeable membrane, some can, some can't
    • 3. Filtration - move across semipermeable membrane cause of force such as gravity or blood pressure
    • 4. Avtive Transport - molecules moving low to high caused by presense of ATP (carries molecules in and out of cell)
    • 5. Phagocytosis - cell eating - pocket in membrane (protien)
    • 6. Pinocytosis - cell drinking - pocket in membrane (water)
  26. Diffusion Process
    • Solutes - medium fluid, molecules solid
    • Move from high to low concentration
    • Body cells higher waste trade for lower O2 = internal respiration
  27. Osmosis Process
    • When fluids equal on both sides of membrane = Equillibrium
    • Equilibrium known as Osmotic Pressure
  28. Isotonic
    Solution same as blood
  29. Normal Saline
    0.9% salt
  30. Hypotonic
    Water will enter blood cell and cell will burst
  31. Hypertonic
    Water will exit blood cell and cell will shrivel
  32. Neurons
    • Nerve cell tissue
    • Don't increase after birth
    • Some can't be regenerated if damaged
  33. Mutation
    During DNA replication - lost, rearanged, or paired in error sequences caused by internal / external factors
  34. Trait
    Recognizeable result from effect of a gene or group of genes
  35. 3 Types Genes
    • 1. Dominant - Can produce trait without pair member
    • 2. Recessive - takes both pairs to create trate
    • 3. X-Linked - defective gene carried on "x-chromosome" (which parent has defect, is child male / female)
  36. Osseous
    Skeletal / Bone
  37. System
    2 or more organs of body that perform similar functions
  38. Organ
    2 or more types of tissue working together for body function
  39. Tissues
    Cells of same type group together to form common purpose
  40. 4 Types Tissues
    • 1. Epithelial - glands, cover surface of body, line cavities
    • 2. Connective - organs and body parts
    • 3. Nerve - body's communication network
    • 4. Muscle - designed to contract on stimulation
  41. Connective Tissue
    • 1. Connective proper - fat tissue, reserve of fuel (food)
    • 2. Supportive - subcutaneous layer under skin
    • 3. Dense Supportive - tendons, ligaments, organ capsules
  42. 3 Nerve Type Tissues
    • 1. Sensory Neuron - skin or sense organs
    • 2. Inter / Connecting Neuron - carries impulses to another neuron
    • 3. Motor Neuron - receives impulses / sends message, cause reaction
  43. 2 Types Muscle Tissue
    • Voluntary - controlled at will with the brain
    • Skeletal / Striated - connected to bones (ability to move)
    • Involuntary - without control or conscious awareness
    • Smooth - within walls of organs
    • Cardiac - only in the heart
  44. Body Systems
    • 1. Nervous
    • 2. The Senses
    • 3. Integumentary
    • 4. Skeletal
    • 5. Muscular
    • 6. Respiratory
    • 7. Circulatory
    • 8. Immune
    • 9. Digestive
    • 10. Urinary
    • 11. Endocrine
    • 12. Reproductive
  45. Life Structure
    • 1. Cell
    • 2. Tissue
    • 3. Organ
    • 4. System
    • 5. Body

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