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What is Starling's Law?
As the myocardium stretches, the strength of the subsequent contraction increases.
Which artery supplies oxygen and nutrients and removes waste from the myocardium?
Resistance to left ventricular contraction
Name some drugs that increase the force of myocardial contractions.
- sympathetic drugs
Which nervouse system influences the rate of impulse generation, speed of transmission through the pathways, and strength of atrial and ventricular contractions?
Autonomic Nervous System
Nerve fibers that decrease the rate and also innervate all parts of the atria and ventricles, and SA and AV nodes.
Parasympathetic Nerve fibers
Mediates impulse between the atria and ventricles.
What is the intrinsic rate of the AV node?
What is the intrinsic rate of the bundle of HIS and Purkinje fibers?
Where is oxygen exchanged for with CO2?
What are the 3 steps necessary for oxygentation?
Process of moving gases into and out of the lungs.
Which nerve controls the diaphragm?
Ability of cardiovascular system to pump oxygentated blood to the tissues and return deoxygentated blood to the lungs.
An active process that is stimulated by chemical reeptors in the aorta.
Passive process that depends on elastic recoil properties of the lungs.
Where does diffusion of respiratory gases occur?
Alveolar capillary membrane
The thickness of the alveolar capillary membrane determines rate of _______.
3 factors that determine capacity of blood to carry oxygen
- -Amount of dissolved O2 in the plasma
- -Amount of hemoglobin
- -Tendency of hemoglobin to bind with oxygen
This protein is a carrier of oxygen in the blood.
What molecule is formed when hemoglobin and oxygen combine?
What 3 things do neural regulators control?
Chemical regulators control these two things...
Respiratory Rate and Depth
Decreases the oxygen carrying capability of blood by decreasing the amount of available hemoglobin.
Anemia AND inhalation of toxic substances (CO)
S/S of Anemia
- decreased activity tolerance
- increased breathlessness
- increased HR
Part of the brain that delivers impulses to the respiratory motor neurons by way of spinal cord. Accommodates speaking, eating and swimming.
In charge of automatic control of continous respiration.
Cervical trauma to these 2 vertebrae usually results in phrenic nerve damage.
C3 and C5
Tachydysrhythmias and bradydysrhythmias lower ________ and _______.
- cardiac output
- blood pressure
Reduces cardiac output by decreasing diastolic filling time.
Lower cardiac output by the decrease in heart rate.
-Chaotic electrical ompulse in the atria
-Normal QRS complex at irregular rhythms
-Described as irregular irregular rhythm
-Abnormal impulse originating above ventricles
-Abnormal placement of P wave
-A sudden rapid onset of tachycardia originating above the AV node
-Begins and ends spontaneously
-Sometimes caused by excitement, fatigue, caffeine, smoking, and alcohol
paroxysmal supraventicular tachycardia
Medications used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
- beta blockers
S/S of left-sided heart failure
- confusion as a result of hypoxia
Clinical findings from left-sided heart failure
- crackles in auscultation
- shortness of breath on exertion and rest
Findings if clients with right-sided heart failure
- weight gain
- distended neck veins
- dependent peripheral edema
Occurs when blood flow through the valves is obstructed
Occurs when there is a backflow of blood into an adjacent chamber.
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