Overview

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
73893
Filename:
Overview
Updated:
2011-03-19 18:11:26
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Fundamentals Oxygenation
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Description:
Basic Cardiac and Pulmonary A&P
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  1. What is Starling's Law?
    As the myocardium stretches, the strength of the subsequent contraction increases.
  2. Which artery supplies oxygen and nutrients and removes waste from the myocardium?
    Coronary artery
  3. End-diastolic volume
    Preload
  4. Resistance to left ventricular contraction
    Afterload
  5. Name some drugs that increase the force of myocardial contractions.
    (3)
    • digitalis
    • epinephrine
    • sympathetic drugs
  6. Which nervouse system influences the rate of impulse generation, speed of transmission through the pathways, and strength of atrial and ventricular contractions?
    Autonomic Nervous System
  7. Nerve fibers that decrease the rate and also innervate all parts of the atria and ventricles, and SA and AV nodes.
    Parasympathetic Nerve fibers
  8. Mediates impulse between the atria and ventricles.
    AV node
  9. What is the intrinsic rate of the AV node?
    40-60bpm
  10. What is the intrinsic rate of the bundle of HIS and Purkinje fibers?
    20-40bpm
  11. Where is oxygen exchanged for with CO2?
    alveoli
  12. What are the 3 steps necessary for oxygentation?
    • ventilation
    • perfusion
    • diffusion
  13. Process of moving gases into and out of the lungs.
    ventilation
  14. Which nerve controls the diaphragm?
    Phrenic nerve
  15. Ability of cardiovascular system to pump oxygentated blood to the tissues and return deoxygentated blood to the lungs.
    perfusion
  16. An active process that is stimulated by chemical reeptors in the aorta.
    Inspiration
  17. Passive process that depends on elastic recoil properties of the lungs.
    expiration
  18. Where does diffusion of respiratory gases occur?
    Alveolar capillary membrane
  19. The thickness of the alveolar capillary membrane determines rate of _______.
    diffusion
  20. 3 factors that determine capacity of blood to carry oxygen
    • -Amount of dissolved O2 in the plasma
    • -Amount of hemoglobin
    • -Tendency of hemoglobin to bind with oxygen
  21. This protein is a carrier of oxygen in the blood.
    Hemoglobin
  22. What molecule is formed when hemoglobin and oxygen combine?
    oxyhemoglobin
  23. What 3 things do neural regulators control?
    • Respiratory:
    • -Rate
    • -Depth
    • -Rhythm
  24. Chemical regulators control these two things...
    Respiratory Rate and Depth
  25. Decreases the oxygen carrying capability of blood by decreasing the amount of available hemoglobin.
    Anemia AND inhalation of toxic substances (CO)
  26. S/S of Anemia
    • fatigue
    • decreased activity tolerance
    • increased breathlessness
    • pallor
    • increased HR
  27. Part of the brain that delivers impulses to the respiratory motor neurons by way of spinal cord. Accommodates speaking, eating and swimming.
    cerebral cortex
  28. In charge of automatic control of continous respiration.
    Medulla oblongata
  29. Cervical trauma to these 2 vertebrae usually results in phrenic nerve damage.
    C3 and C5
  30. Tachydysrhythmias and bradydysrhythmias lower ________ and _______.
    • cardiac output
    • blood pressure
  31. Reduces cardiac output by decreasing diastolic filling time.
    Tachydysrhythmias
  32. Lower cardiac output by the decrease in heart rate.
    Bradydysrhythmias
  33. -Chaotic electrical ompulse in the atria
    -Irregular
    -Normal QRS complex at irregular rhythms
    -Described as irregular irregular rhythm
    Atrial Fibrillation
  34. -Abnormal impulse originating above ventricles
    -Abnormal placement of P wave
    supraventicular dysrhythmias
  35. -A sudden rapid onset of tachycardia originating above the AV node
    -Begins and ends spontaneously
    -Sometimes caused by excitement, fatigue, caffeine, smoking, and alcohol
    paroxysmal supraventicular tachycardia
  36. Medications used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
    (4)
    • adenosine
    • diltiazem
    • digitalis
    • beta blockers
  37. S/S of left-sided heart failure
    • fatigue
    • breathlessness
    • dizziness
    • confusion as a result of hypoxia
  38. Clinical findings from left-sided heart failure
    • crackles in auscultation
    • hypoxia
    • shortness of breath on exertion and rest
    • cough
  39. Findings if clients with right-sided heart failure
    • weight gain
    • distended neck veins
    • hepatomegly
    • splenomegaly
    • dependent peripheral edema
  40. Occurs when blood flow through the valves is obstructed
    Stenosis
  41. Occurs when there is a backflow of blood into an adjacent chamber.
    regurgitation

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