Pediatric Imaging Mid

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Pediatric Imaging Mid
2011-03-19 21:29:22
Pediatric Imaging

Pediatric Imaging Mid-term
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  1. Children ___-___ years should be placed in Pigg-O-Stat for Chext x-ray.
    Newborn-3 years
  2. For chest x-ray on a newborn to 3 year old, the IR should include from ___ to ___.
    Mastoid tips to just above iliac crests
  3. CR should be centered perpendicular to ___ for pediatric chest x-ray.
  4. Centering for recumbent lateral chest:
    Mid-Coronal plane at mamillary line
  5. Centering for Pigg-O-Stat lateral chest:
    Midthorax at mamillary line
  6. What are pediatric hip x-rays most often ordered to assess?
    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, congenital hip dislocation or nonspecific hip pain
  7. What should be removed for pediatric abdomen and hip x-rays?
  8. Two immobilization techniques for pediatric skull exam:
    “Bunny” technique or head clamp (earmuffs)
  9. For pediatric skull exams, how much angle difference is there from adult patients?
    5 degrees less
  10. Pediatric small bowel series require intervals of:
    20-30 minutes
  11. On average, it takes how long for barium to reach iliocecal valve in pediatric patients?
    1 hour
  12. What are used for neonates and infants during a single-contrast BE?
    10 Fr silicone catheter and 60 ml syringe
  13. Catheter and syringe used for pediatric VCUG:
    8 Fr catheter and 10 cc syringe
  14. During pediatric VCUG, the bladder is filled slowly by:
  15. An Upper GI for a pediatric patient up to 3 months old requires what prep?
    NPO 3 hours prior
  16. An Upper GI for a pediatric patient from 3 months to 5 years requires what prep?
    NPO 4 hours prior
  17. An Upper GI for a pediatric patient 5 years and older requires what prep?
    NPO 6 hours prior
  18. A lower GI exam for an infant up to 2 years of age requires what prep?
  19. Children 2 to 10 years require what prep for a lower GI exam?
    Low-residue meal evening prior, laxative before bedtime, and possible fleet enema
  20. Children 10 years and older require what prep for lower GI exam?
    Same as adults
  21. Patient prep for IVU exam:
    No solid food 4 hours prior, encourage clear liquids
  22. Centering for AP abdomen, pediatric:
    1” above umbilicus
  23. Centering for dorsal decubitus abdomen:
    1” above umbilicus
  24. Bone age study for 1-2 year olds often includes:
    AP left knee
  25. Common cause of respiratory distress in children 6 months-3 years:
    Aspirated foreign bodies
  26. Three primary imaging system characteristics:
    Focal Spot Size, Filtration, High Voltage Generation
  27. Four Prime exposure factors:
    kVp, mA, exposure time, distance
  28. Four Image quality factors:
    Optical Density, Contrast, Detail, Distortion
  29. Influencing factors of image contrast:
    Grid ratio, collimation, OID, anatomy, contrast media, processing (time/temp)
  30. Influencing factors of image density:
    kVp, distance, anatomy, processing, IR speed, collimation, grid ratio
  31. Controlling factor of image detail:
    Focal spot size
  32. Influencing factors of image detail:
    SID, OID, Motion
  33. Controlling factor of Image distortion:
    Patient positioning
  34. Influencing factors of image distortion:
    Alignment of tube, part, and IR
  35. Four principal types of technique charts:
    Variable kVp, Fixed kVp, High kVp, and automatic exposure technique
  36. With a variable kVp technique chart, the ___ is fixed and the kVp varies with ____.
    mAs; thickness
  37. Variable kVp technique charts require precise ____ and result in a ____ scale of contrast and ____ patient dose.
    Part measurement; short; higher
  38. With a fixed kVp technique chart, the ____ varies with thickness. This produces a ____ scale of contrast and ____ patient dose. Precise part measurement is ____.
    mAs; longer; lower; not important (s, m, l)
  39. High kVp technique charts are similar to____ and are used for ____:
    Fixed kVp technique charts; contrast studies and chest
  40. What should be the first consideration in controlling motion for the pediatric patient?
    Short exposure time
  41. There are ____ bones in the axial skeleton and ___ bones in the appendicular.
    80; 126
  42. The process by which bones form in the body is known as
    Ossification or osteogenesis
  43. In utero, ossification begins at about the:
    Sixth embryonic week
  44. Two types of bone formation:
    Intramembranous and endochondral
  45. Area between Diaphysis and Epiphysis:
    Epiphyseal plate
  46. The Pigg-O-Stat can be used for which pediatric exams?
    Chest, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spines
  47. Two main areas of problems in radiographer confidence:
    Communication skills and immobilization techniques
  48. Greatest danger to premature infant:
  49. Classic indicators for suspected child abuse:
    Posterior rib fractures, corner fractures and bucket-handle fractures
  50. Does Osteogenesis Imperfecta require higher or lower technique?
    Lower (brittle bone disease)
  51. What positioning line is perpendicular to the IR for an AP projection of the pediatric skull?
  52. What radiographic structures are evaluated to best determine tilt on a lateral pediatric skull?
    Sella and clivus in profile
  53. What is the difference between medical asepsis and surgical asepsis?
    Medical asepsis uses clean technique while surgical asepsis uses steril technique
  54. What is the difference between passive and active immunity?
    Active immunity indicates antibodies are formed by ones own body while passive immunity indicates antibodies given by human intervention
  55. The practice of separating infectious patients from others is called ____.
  56. Two major nosocomial infections:
    MRSA and VRE
  57. X-ray table and IR are examples of:
  58. The STIR and FLAR sequences are used to diagnose what?
    Cerebral edema and cancerous lesions
  59. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the direction of a hydrogen magnetic moment in our body will be:
  60. On a T1 image, fat appears ____ and water appears _____.
    Bright; dark
  61. On a T2 image, fat appears ____ and water appears _____.
    Dark; bright
  62. T1 images are created with a ___ TR and a ____ TE.
    Short; short
  63. T2 images are created with a ____ TR and a ____ TE.
    Long; long
  64. Which type of magnet loses it’s magnetic field if electric supply is interrupted?
  65. The time from initial RF excitation to the echo is called:
    TE, echo time
  66. The time from initial RF excitation to the next 90 degrees is called:
    TR, repetition time
  67. TE controls ___ weighting while TR controls ____ weighting.
    T2; T1