Pediatric Imaging Mid
Card Set Information
Pediatric Imaging Mid
Pediatric Imaging Mid-term
Children ___-___ years should be placed in Pigg-O-Stat for Chext x-ray.
For chest x-ray on a newborn to 3 year old, the IR should include from ___ to ___.
Mastoid tips to just above iliac crests
CR should be centered perpendicular to ___ for pediatric chest x-ray.
Centering for recumbent lateral chest:
Mid-Coronal plane at mamillary line
Centering for Pigg-O-Stat lateral chest:
Midthorax at mamillary line
What are pediatric hip x-rays most often ordered to assess?
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, congenital hip dislocation or nonspecific hip pain
What should be removed for pediatric abdomen and hip x-rays?
Two immobilization techniques for pediatric skull exam:
“Bunny” technique or head clamp (earmuffs)
For pediatric skull exams, how much angle difference is there from adult patients?
5 degrees less
Pediatric small bowel series require intervals of:
On average, it takes how long for barium to reach iliocecal valve in pediatric patients?
What are used for neonates and infants during a single-contrast BE?
10 Fr silicone catheter and 60 ml syringe
Catheter and syringe used for pediatric VCUG:
8 Fr catheter and 10 cc syringe
During pediatric VCUG, the bladder is filled slowly by:
An Upper GI for a pediatric patient up to 3 months old requires what prep?
NPO 3 hours prior
An Upper GI for a pediatric patient from 3 months to 5 years requires what prep?
NPO 4 hours prior
An Upper GI for a pediatric patient 5 years and older requires what prep?
NPO 6 hours prior
A lower GI exam for an infant up to 2 years of age requires what prep?
Children 2 to 10 years require what prep for a lower GI exam?
Low-residue meal evening prior, laxative before bedtime, and possible fleet enema
Children 10 years and older require what prep for lower GI exam?
Same as adults
Patient prep for IVU exam:
No solid food 4 hours prior, encourage clear liquids
Centering for AP abdomen, pediatric:
1” above umbilicus
Centering for dorsal decubitus abdomen:
1” above umbilicus
Bone age study for 1-2 year olds often includes:
AP left knee
Common cause of respiratory distress in children 6 months-3 years:
Aspirated foreign bodies
Three primary imaging system characteristics:
Focal Spot Size, Filtration, High Voltage Generation
Four Prime exposure factors:
kVp, mA, exposure time, distance
Four Image quality factors:
Optical Density, Contrast, Detail, Distortion
Influencing factors of image contrast:
Grid ratio, collimation, OID, anatomy, contrast media, processing (time/temp)
Influencing factors of image density:
kVp, distance, anatomy, processing, IR speed, collimation, grid ratio
Controlling factor of image detail:
Focal spot size
Influencing factors of image detail:
SID, OID, Motion
Controlling factor of Image distortion:
Influencing factors of image distortion:
Alignment of tube, part, and IR
Four principal types of technique charts:
Variable kVp, Fixed kVp, High kVp, and automatic exposure technique
With a variable kVp technique chart, the ___ is fixed and the kVp varies with ____.
Variable kVp technique charts require precise ____ and result in a ____ scale of contrast and ____ patient dose.
Part measurement; short; higher
With a fixed kVp technique chart, the ____ varies with thickness. This produces a ____ scale of contrast and ____ patient dose. Precise part measurement is ____.
mAs; longer; lower; not important (s, m, l)
High kVp technique charts are similar to____ and are used for ____:
Fixed kVp technique charts; contrast studies and chest
What should be the first consideration in controlling motion for the pediatric patient?
Short exposure time
There are ____ bones in the axial skeleton and ___ bones in the appendicular.
The process by which bones form in the body is known as
Ossification or osteogenesis
In utero, ossification begins at about the:
Sixth embryonic week
Two types of bone formation:
Intramembranous and endochondral
Area between Diaphysis and Epiphysis:
The Pigg-O-Stat can be used for which pediatric exams?
Chest, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spines
Two main areas of problems in radiographer confidence:
Communication skills and immobilization techniques
Greatest danger to premature infant:
Classic indicators for suspected child abuse:
Posterior rib fractures, corner fractures and bucket-handle fractures
Does Osteogenesis Imperfecta require higher or lower technique?
Lower (brittle bone disease)
What positioning line is perpendicular to the IR for an AP projection of the pediatric skull?
What radiographic structures are evaluated to best determine tilt on a lateral pediatric skull?
Sella and clivus in profile
What is the difference between medical asepsis and surgical asepsis?
Medical asepsis uses clean technique while surgical asepsis uses steril technique
What is the difference between passive and active immunity?
Active immunity indicates antibodies are formed by ones own body while passive immunity indicates antibodies given by human intervention
The practice of separating infectious patients from others is called ____.
Two major nosocomial infections:
MRSA and VRE
X-ray table and IR are examples of:
The STIR and FLAR sequences are used to diagnose what?
Cerebral edema and cancerous lesions
In the absence of an external magnetic field, the direction of a hydrogen magnetic moment in our body will be:
On a T1 image, fat appears ____ and water appears _____.
On a T2 image, fat appears ____ and water appears _____.
T1 images are created with a ___ TR and a ____ TE.
T2 images are created with a ____ TR and a ____ TE.
Which type of magnet loses it’s magnetic field if electric supply is interrupted?
The time from initial RF excitation to the echo is called:
TE, echo time
The time from initial RF excitation to the next 90 degrees is called:
TR, repetition time
TE controls ___ weighting while TR controls ____ weighting.