Pub Health 2

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Pub Health 2
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2011-03-24 00:11:05
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  1. FSIS regulates
    meat, poultry, egg products
  2. Laws enforced by FSIS
    • Federal meat inspection act
    • Poultry product inspection act
    • Egg product inspection act
    • Humane slaughter act of 1958
  3. Poultry postmortem inspection
    organoleptic- sight, fell, smell
  4. Poultry disposition options
    • pass carcass for human food
    • retain for further inspection
    • condemn carcass for human food
  5. final decision on postmortem disposition
    PHV not inspector
  6. Septicemia
    pathogenic microorganisms in blood that have produced systemic change
  7. toxemia
    absorption of toxins produced by infective organisms, showing signs similar to septicemia
  8. chlamydiosis
    • aka- psittacosis, ornithosis, parrot fever
    • acute or chronic
    • can aerosolize
    • zoonotic- flu like symptoms
  9. tuberculosis
    • myobacterium avium
    • slow spread
    • chronic granulomatous infection
    • not zoonotic
    • unwholesome tissue
  10. Leukosis complex
    • mareks dz
    • lymphoid leukosis
    • reticuloendotheliosis
    • lymphoproliferative dz
    • not zoonotic
    • unwholesome tissue
  11. synovitis-tendonitis
    • acute or chronic
    • cause by bacteria
    • not zoonotic
    • unwholesome tissue
  12. avian neoplams
    • keratoacanthoma
    • adenocarcinoma
    • leiomyoma
    • hemangiosarcoma
    • connective tissue tumors
    • not zoonotic
    • unwholesome tissue
  13. bruised poultry
    • condemned parts or if too bad then whole carcass
    • slight reddening is ok
  14. poultry cadaver
    • die from causes other than slaughter
    • not dead when enter scald vat
    • drown in scald vat
    • signs are skin redness, engorged blood vessels, congested viscera
    • hypermia- cherry red bird
  15. overscald poultry
    cooked appearance of deep pectoral or cooked viscera
  16. airsacculitis
    • inf of air sac
    • puss and exudate in air sac
  17. inflammatory process of poultry
    yellow caseous exudate in subcutis of young chickens
  18. turkey osteomyelitis complex
    • multiple bacteria
    • inability to walk, swollen jt
    • part condemned or whole carcass is systemic
  19. ascites in poultry
    aka- water belly
  20. condemned
    inspected and found to be diseased or otherwise adultered
  21. inedible
    product that is adulterated, uninspected, or not intended for use in human food
  22. how to destroy condemned or inedible poultry products
    • steam
    • burying
    • burning
    • chemical or dye denaturing
  23. FSIS
    • public health regulatory agency
    • regulates meat, poultry, and processed egg
    • ensures products are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled
  24. Meat inspection act of 1906
    • began system
    • mandatory PM inspection
  25. wholesome meat act of 1967
    • state programs must be equal to
    • mandatory AM inspection
  26. inspection vs grading
    • grading is voluntary
    • inspection is mandatory
  27. FSIS jurisdiction
    • all meat products prepared for public consumption must be inspected
    • only on slaughter floor, not farm
    • some states have own program for intrastate products
  28. FSIS exemptions
    • custom slaughter- meat for personal use
    • retail
    • restaurant
  29. Nonamenable species
    • species not subject to FMIA
    • bison, deer, elk, reindeer, water buffalo, catalo, gator
    • covered by FDA unless pay for voluntary USDA inspection
  30. Antemortem inspection
    • assure that only animals capable of producing wholesome, safe product are passed for slaughter
    • done by FSIS
    • before slaughter
    • on premises
    • day of slaughter
    • in motion and at rest
  31. who performs antemortem inspection
    • food inspectors- separate normal from abnormal
    • veterinary medical officers provide final disposition
  32. antemortem dispositions
    • pass for regular slaughter
    • pass for slaughter as a US suspect
    • US condemned
  33. ocular squamous cell carcinoma
    • suspect
    • unless extensive necrosis
  34. Acti
    • suspect
    • aka- lumpy jaw, wooden tongue
  35. downers
    • condemned- cattle
    • suspect- other species
  36. CNS conditions
    • condemned
    • VS samples for BSE
  37. lameness
    suspect
  38. swelling
    suspect
  39. dead or moribund
    condemned
  40. abnormal posture
    • suspect
    • unless systemic
  41. skin conditions
    suspect for diamond skin in swine
  42. cachexia
    condemned
  43. pyrexia
    condemned
  44. reportable to APHIS-VS
    • vesicular dz
    • DNS dz
    • brucellosis
    • screwworms
    • babesiosis
  45. who performs postmortem inspection
    • food inspectors separate normal from abnormal
    • veterinarians provide disposition
  46. beef inspection procedures of head
    • surface
    • lymph nodes
    • masseterstongue
  47. beef inspection procedures of viscera
    • lymph nodes
    • heart
    • bile duct
    • liver
    • r-r junction
    • intestines and spleen
  48. beef inspection procedures of carcass
    • thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavity
    • outer surface
    • kidneys and diaphragm
  49. postmortem disposition options
    • US inspected and passed
    • US inspected and condemned
    • passed for refrigeration
    • passed for cooking
    • passed for heating
    • passed for use in cooked comminuted products
  50. septicemia or toxemia
    condemned
  51. abscesses
    • passed after trimming
    • condemned if generalized
  52. inflammatory
    • localized- passed
    • generalized- condemned
  53. tuberculosis
    • condemned
    • submit for testing
  54. erysipelas
    • generalized acute- condemned
    • chronic- passed
  55. necrobacillosis
    • localized- passed
    • generalized- condemned
  56. actinobacillosis
    • localized- passed
    • generalized- condemned
  57. caseous lymphadenitis
    • localized- passed
    • generalized- condemned
  58. injuries
    • trimmable- passed
    • generalized- condemned
  59. emaciation
    condemned
  60. edematous- dropsical conditions
    • localized- passed
    • generalized- condemned
  61. eosinophilic myositis
    • localized- passed
    • extensive- condemned
  62. cysticercosis
    • passed for freezing
    • condemned if extensive
  63. distomiasis (flukes)
    • carcass passed
    • liver condemned
  64. icterus
    condemned
  65. melanosis
    passed unless extensive
  66. malignant lymphoma
    condemned
  67. melanoma
    condemned if malignant
  68. neurofibroma
    passed
  69. adrenocortical carcinoma
    condemned if metastatic
  70. Johne's disease
    passed except intestines
  71. vena cava syndrome
    condemned
  72. anaplasmosis
    condemned
  73. injection site lesions
    • perform in plant residue test
    • condemned if violative
  74. residue sampling
    • performed by veterinarian
    • mostly antibiotics, sulfa-
    • 24 hr results
  75. specified risk materials (SRM)
    • beef slaughter plants must have SRM controls
    • SRM has high risk BSE and are inedible
    • ex- tonsils, distal ileum, skull (30 mth), brain (30 mth), spinal cord (30 mth), vertebral column (30 mth), eyes (30 mth), dorsal root ganglia (30 mth), trigeminal ganglia (30 mth)
  76. humane slaughter act of 1978
    • FSIS enforces
    • not poultry
    • animals handled humanely
    • animals rendered insensible to pain prior to slaughter
  77. FSIS verification of food safety system
    • HACCP
    • SSOP
    • generic E. coli and other testing programs
  78. Pathogen testing in finished products
    • E. coli
    • Listeria
    • Salmonella
    • Campylobacter
  79. recalls
    if adulterated products enter commerce then a recall will be requested by FSIS
  80. foodborne pathogen big picture
    success against most foodborne pathogens has been limited in recent years
  81. role of DVM in foodborne pathogens
    • diagnose, treat, and prevent foodborne pathogens
    • source of info for public
    • regulatory vets
  82. Salmonella
    • gram neg
    • S. enterica subsp. enterica
    • zoonotic
    • unrestricted= dz in multiple host species
    • restricted= dz in one host species
    • serovars- enteritidis, typhimurium, newport
  83. Salmonella public health implications
    • #1 cause bacterial enteritis
    • may be asymptomatic
    • self limiting
  84. Salmonella reservior
    • poultry
    • cattle
    • pigs
    • horses
    • dogs
    • cats
    • rodents
    • reptiles
    • amphibians
    • fish
    • humans
  85. Salmonella transmission
    • fecal-oral
    • foodborne outbreak
    • direct contact with animal
  86. Salmonella in cattle
    • diarrhea in adult and calf- green, blood?
    • fever
    • anorexia, dehydration, dec milk prod
    • calves- septicemia
  87. Salmonella Dublin
    same as others plus resp signs
  88. Salmonella in Dairy cattle
    • can be in healthy
    • frequently shed serovars that are MDR and important human pathogens
    • Newport and typhimurium most common
    • shed 50-391d
    • shed longer than clinical signs
  89. Salmonella in horses
    • foals and immunocompromised
    • Newport and typhimurium common
    • asymptomatic, colic, diarrhea, fever
  90. Salmonella in reptiles
    • pet turtles
    • asymptomatic
    • pet iguanas and snakes
  91. Salmonella in chickens
    • enteritidis, typhimurium common
    • asymptomatic
    • horizontal and vertical transmission
    • humans get from poorly cooked eggs or poultry
    • easter chicks
  92. Salmonella in dogs and cats
    • also in healthy animals
    • GI signs
  93. Prevent Salmonella
    • judicious Ab use
    • counsel clients
    • do not feed raw meet to pets
    • wash well
    • disinfect boots and equipment
    • don't drink unpasteurized milk
    • counsel clients about children and reptiles
  94. E. coli O157:H7
    • gram neg
    • GI dz
    • enterohemorrhagic
    • produces cytotoxin (shiga toxin)
  95. E. coli public health implications
    • zoonotic
    • acute diarrhea
    • hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)- renal failure, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia
    • leading cause of pediatric renal failure
  96. E. coli reserviors
    • cattle
    • humans
  97. E. coli transmission
    • low infectious dose
    • fecal-oral
  98. E. coli in cattle
    • normal flora
    • asymptomatic
    • inc shedding in summer (like salmonella)
    • may shed for more than a year (like salmonella)
  99. E. coli prevention
    • counsel clients
    • no raw meat diets
    • advise cattle workers
    • good kitchen hygiene
  100. Campylobacter
    • gram neg
    • curved, spiral, S shaped
    • C. jejuni, C. coli
    • diarrhea
  101. Campylobacter public health implications
    • Antimicrobial resistance inc over last few years
    • 2nd highest cause of enteric pathogens transmitted by food
    • self limiting (like Salmonella)

    complications- GBS, arthritis
  102. Campylobacter reservior
    • poultry
    • cattle
    • puppies
    • kittens
    • pigs
    • sheep
    • rodents
  103. Campylobacter transmission
    fecal-oral
  104. Campylobacter in cattle
    • asymptomatic carrier (like E. coli)
    • intermittent shedding
    • cannot survive long in env (unlike E. coli and Salmonella)
  105. Campylobacter in poultry
    • asymptomatic
    • raw chicken in stores
  106. Campylobacter in pigs
    • asymptomatic
    • C. coli
  107. Campylobacter in dogs and cats
    diarrhea in puppies and kittens
  108. Preventing Campylobacter
    • judicious use of Ab
    • counsel clients
    • no raw meat diets
    • advise farm owners
    • good kitchen hygiene
    • counsel clients with children and puppies
  109. Listeria
    • L. monocytogenes
    • gram pos
    • hardy- form biofilm, multiply at fridge temp
  110. Listeria public health implications
    • high mortality
    • 7th leading cause by enteric pathogens transmitted by food
    • asymptomatic, mild fever
    • immunocompromised- fever, septicemia, vomit
    • pregnant- abortions, stilllbirth
  111. Listeria reservior
    • soil- can survive for years
    • water
    • vegetation
    • silage
    • mammals
    • birds
    • fish
  112. Listeria transmission
    • foodborne- unpasteurized dairy
    • congenital
    • direct contact
  113. Listeria in cattle
    • ingestion of poorly fermented silage
    • often asymptomatic
    • most common in adults- fever, dep, CNS
  114. Listeria in poultry
    • often asymptomatic
    • septicemia
  115. Listeria in other species
    rare in horses, pigs, dogs, cats
  116. Prevent Listeria
    • educate public
    • counsel clients that are pregnant and immunocompromised to avoid unpasteurized dairy products
  117. Toxoplasma
    • T. gondii
    • intracellular protozoa
  118. Toxoplasma public health implications
    • asymptomatic
    • immunoompromised- fever, encephalitis, pneumonia
    • pregnant- abortion, stillbirth
  119. Toxoplasma reservior
    • cats
    • takes 1-5d to sporulate and become infective
    • intermediate- rodents, birds, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, cattle, dogs (cats get infected by eating the cyst in IH)
  120. Toxoplasma transmission
    • #2 ingest oocyst in soil or water (survive long time in env)
    • #1 foodborne- undercooked meat with cysts, raw veggies
    • congenital
  121. Toxoplasma in cats
    • often asymptomatic
    • fever, anorexia, lethargy, CNS
  122. Toxoplasma in sheep
    abortions
  123. Toxoplasma in other species
    • rare in pigs
    • not in cattle or horses
    • clinical dz in puppies
  124. Prevent Toxoplasma
    • keep cat indoors
    • no raw meat diets
    • clean littler box daily
    • wear gloves while gardening
    • wash hands after handling feces and soil
    • prevent children from eating soil
    • keep veg garden fenced
    • good kitchen hygiene

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