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What are the neurological effects of ethanol?
- 1) Cerebral cortext - intelligence
- 2) Limbic system: mood
- 3) Brain stern: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and fight or flight response
Where is enthanol absorbed?
Stomach and gastrointestinal tract
Where does the ethanol distribute to?
Distributes to total body water. High blood flow organans get most because the high blood flow organs equilibrates with blood concentration.
How can absorbtion of ethanol be slowed?
- 1) Slowed by full stomach
- 2) higher the level of alcohol, the slower the absorption since slowing of stomach emptying
Rank ethanol absorption after a meal of different macromolecules from slowest to fastest.
- Slowest: Carbohydrates
- Moderate: Fats
- Fastest: Proteins
What time of day is the absorbition of ethanol the greatest?
Early afternoon has the greatest effect on absorbtion.
For a given dosage, list all that would have the highest level of blood alcohol.
At what level BAC % does the person appear normal?
At 0.01-0.029% (mg of alcohol/100ml of blood)
At what mg alcohol/100 ml of blood percentage are these symptomatic? [mild ephoria, sense of well-being, relaxation, talkativeness, decreased inhibition, lowered alertness, judgment, coordination concentration]
What are the functionality losses at 0.1%?
Sensory and motor function depressed
What are the functionality losses at 0.2%?
Loss of control of emotion.
What are the functionality losses at 0.3%?
What are the functionality losses at >0.4%?
comatose, breathing/hearbeat depressed and death can occur.
Generally, a 200 pounds male with 2 beers after 1 hour would have blood concentration % of about?
What is BAC?
- Blood Alcohol Content
- (mg of alcohol / 100 mL of blood)
What are the ethanol effect of vision, and at what concentration does it occur?
- - impairment of depth perception/reduced ability to judge distances
- - impaired ability to see rapidly chaning events
- - the effect is variable, but occurs at relatively high concentration of 0.1% BAC.
What are the ethanols effect on hearing?
- - impaired ability to gleen information from auditory stimuli
- - Variable
As low as _______ BAC the sense of smell can be deminished.
In what way is sense of touch deminished by alcohol?
- - two point discrimination reduced
- - reduced sensitivity to pain
What are the motor control effects of 0.1% BAC?
- - standing without swaying, touching two fingers together, and other measures of hand steadiness and gait (speed)
- -RXN time increased at 0.07 BAC and increases by 10% at 0.08 to 0.1%. However choice RXN time effected and increased incidence of wrong choices
At what ethanol BAC % is there an increase in reaction time?
- - 0.07% there is increase in rxn time and increases by 10% at 0.08-0.1%
- - However, choice rxn time effected and increased incidence of wrong choices
What are thae effects of ethanol on cognition?
- - decreased fluency with words
- - time passes quickly
- - memory deficiencies during time period of consumption
- - impaired judgement of self and others performance
- - increased willingness to take risks
Industrial tasks: On assembly tasks productivity decreases ____ % at ____ BAC
What is the effect of 0.1 BAC on pilots? How long can the impaired performance last?
- -reduced flying performance including communication for at least two hours after having reached 0.10 BAC
- - Overall performance remained impaired for upto 8 hours
What is degreaser's Flush?
- -The skin of the face and arms becomes very red due to ethanol exposure shortly before/after exposure to trichloroethylene
- Trichloroethylene and ethanol act in synergistic manner
How does tetrachloride and ethanol effect individual toxicity?
Both are individually toxic to liver, but synergistic. Together produce liver injury greater than sum of individual effects on the liver
What is alcohol's IARC rating?
Group 1 (Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans)
List medical complications of alcohol.
- cancer of mouth
- cirrhosis of liver
- impotence and other