What are the universal precautions for dealing with most
1. Use appropriate barrier to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure when contact with blood or other body fluids is anticipated.
Use gloves/change gloves after contact with each patient.
Use masks and protective eyewear or face shields during procedures that are likely to generate droplets of body fluid
Use gowns or aprons during procedures that are likely to generate splashes of body fluid.
2. Wash hands
immediately and thoroughly if contaminated with body fluid. Wash hands after gloves are removed.
3. Take precautions to prevent injures by needles and other sharp objects. Dispose of needles in puncture –resistent container.
4. Pregnant health-care workers should avoid exposure to HIV because the risk of infection
from perinatal transmission is high.
5. If contamination is indicated in spite of precautions, immediate decontamination is indicated e.g. (solution of 1 part household bleach to 10 parts water. )
What are some general health precautions.
Use of gloves
Discard gloves in client’s room or examination before
Use mouth resuscitation/mouthpieces/resuscitation bags when possible.
What are some safety
Clean all work surfaces not contaminated by body fluids need not be cleaned after each use.
Simple soap and water or 1:100 solution of household bleach to water is adequate for cleaning clinical materials and equipment.
What steps should you take to maintain client
1) Don't talk about the client outside the clinic.
2) Erase the name and all identifying information of the client from your computer.
3) Don't use the client's name on drafts, only on the final draft.
Describe a normal occlusion
the contact of the upper and lower teeth in the centric relationship.
Describe procedures for an oral peripheral examination
An exam that tests the form and function of the lips, teeth, tongue, hard and soft palate, fauces, breathing mechanism, posture, and facial structures.
Describe guidelines for administering diadochokinesis
Make sure you give instructions to say the sounds as "fast and as steady" as you can and to "keep going until I say stop."
a malformation in which the anterior teeth do not occlude in any mandibular position
a form of malocclusion in which the mandibular teeth are cranial to the maxillary teeth.
Malocclusion in which the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth.
Amount of clinician support provided to obtain desired responses.
degree of difficulty of target responses
1) Increase length and complexity of desired response
d) Carrier Phrase
2) Decrease latency (actual time) between stimulus presentation and client response.
Nature of input used to elicit target responses
1) Direct physical manipulation
2) Concrete symbols
b) Photographs/colored pictures
c) Black and white line drawing
3) Abstract Symbols
a) Oral Language
b) Written language
based on known developmental sequences of communicative behaviors in normally achieving individuals.
Client specific Strategy
therapy targets are chosen based on an individual's specific needs rather than according to developmental norms.
going back when a child is not having success
carryover from clinic to the rest of their life
Key teaching strategies
different strategies for teaching different skills in therapy
clinician demonstrates a specific behavior to provide an explemplar for the client to imitate. Most common teaching strategy used by SLPs.
Clinician demonstrates a specific behavior frequently to expose a client to numerous well-formed examples of the target behavior.
Shaping by successive approximation
a target behavior is broken down into small components and taught in an ascending sequence of difficulty.
Task order as related to session design
begin and end with something you know they can do and you must do scaffolding.
the spatial arrangement or relationships between the clinician and client(s) within the therapy setting.
clinician provides additional verbal or nonverbal cues to facilitate a client's production of a correct response.
Clinician reformulates a client's utterance into a more mature or complete version.
the client is required to intentionally produce a target behavior using a habitual error pattern. This procedure is generally employed to facilitate learning by highlighting the contrast between the error pattern and the desired response.
Target specific Feedback
the clinician provides information regarding the accuracy or inaccuracy of a client's response relative to the specific target behavior. This type of feedback or consequences.
a teaching and learning style in which ideas, concepts, data and other information are associated with images and techniques
depends on hearing and speaking as a main way of learning.
a learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration.
gradually reducing the support given to the client in prompting.
information found at the beginning of a study or other initial known value which is used for comparison with later data.
commonality of perspective: being "in sync" with, Or being "on the same wavelength" as the person with whom you are talking.
Always standardized-comparison of an individual's performance to the performance of a larger group called a normative group. The results of this sample are analyzed to establish the normal distribution.
Criterion referenced test
Not always standardized-identify what a client can and cannot do compared to predefined criterion.
A designated number of items in a row that are correct. All items before this number are
generally counted as correct.
A designated number of items in a row that
a test truly measures what it claims to measure
the results are replicable
tells the percentage of people scoring at or below a particular score. The percentile is not a percentage of the test so be careful that you report percentile not percent.
score correct before averaged and etc.
of 1-100 with 50 being the average
an age at which most children of that age can perform the skills.
for short term objectives; used a lot in the school systems
a rewarding event or condition that is presented contigent on the performance of a desired behavior.
An unpleasant event/condition is removed contingent on the performance of a desired behavior.
instruments administered periodically throughout treatment to measure a client's progress.
Taking a concept learned and putting it into the outside world.
the use of a behavior's antecedent and/or its consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior
An event is presented contingent on the performance of an undesired behavior to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will recur.
consequences that increase the probability that a particular behavior will recur
Maintaining fluency over breaks
the temporary isolation or removal of a client to an environment with limited or no opportunity to receive positive reinforcement.
when previously earned positive reinforcers are deducted or taken back each time the undesirable behavior is demonstrated.
the use of a behavior's antecedent and/or its consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior.
What are the three parts of Evidence Based Practice.
2) Clinical experience
3) Consideration of the client's perspective
What are the two primary functions of documentation
1) Ensures clinician accountability
2) Monitors progress and efficacy
Describe how to use tokens or stimulus items as an
alternative to paper/pencil documentation systems.
Give tokens for a certain response and a specific amount of tokens equals something of value to the client.
Describe how you would document every
only record the first response
What is a way you could collect data without
paper and pencil
What is an advantage of utilizing language sampling
You get a better idea of the child's expressive language
What is a disadvantage of utilizing languge sampling
The client may not be in a comfortable setting and may not speak to the client.
Name three variables of language sampling
3) Nature of interaction
Name three ways you could analyze a
2) Syntax-when they have 3-4 word utterances
3) Pragmatics-Doer's pragmatical acts
Give two ways of controlling undesirable
behaviors in the therapy setting.