Chapter 13 Gynecology.txt

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Chapter 13 Gynecology.txt
2011-03-20 01:40:15
Female Reproductive

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  1. Gynecology
    anatomy and physiology of a female,study of females, when not pregnaunt
  2. Areola
    pigmented area around the nipple of the breast
  3. Obstectrics
    the knowledge of and practice of treating women during pregnancy and childbirth
  4. Cervix
    narrow poost inferior part of the uterus. contains the cervical canal and the cervical os- small central opening in the cervix
  5. Clitoris
    organ of sexual response in the female, enlarges and becomes engorged w/blood
  6. Endometrium
    the innermost layer of the uterus that lines the intrauterne cavity, mucus membrane that contains many glands, It thickens & then is shed during menstural cycle
  7. metri/o
  8. Fundus
    is the rounded top of the uterus
  9. Genitalia Organs
    • external & internal organs and structures of the female genitale and reproductive system: External include: labia majora, labia minora,clitoris, vaginal introitus, Bartholins glands, urethral glands, skenes glands
    • Internal Organs Include: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and the vagina
  10. Genitournary System
    female genital and reproductive system that is in close proximity to the urinary system
  11. Gonads
    the ovaries or sex glands in the female
  12. Hymen
    the elastic membrane that partialy or completly covers the inferior end of the vaginal canal
  13. Intrauterine Cavity
    the hollow cavity inside the uterus lined w/endomettrieum
  14. Mammory Glands
    the breast, female characteristics that develops during puberty, contain adipose (fatty) tissue and lactiferous lobules, provide milk to nourish the baby after birth
  15. Menarche
    first cycle of menstruation at the onset of puberty, this is the first menstrial cycle or mensces
  16. Menstrual Cycle
    a 28 day cycle that consists of the menstrual phase, proliferative phase, ovulation, secretory phase, and ischemic phase,
  17. Menstruation
    process in which the endometrium of the uterus is shed each month, causing a flow of blood and tissue through the vagina under the influence of estradiol the endometrium thickens in preperation to receve a fertilized ovum
  18. Ovary
    small eggshaped gland near the end of the uterine tube
  19. Oviduct
    AKA: fallopian tubes
  20. Ovulation
    day 14 of the menstral cycle, Lutenizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland causes the ovarian follicle to rupture, releasing the mature ovum
  21. Perineum
    area of the skin betweem the vulva and the anus
  22. Peristalsis
    smooth muscle contractions
  23. Vagina
    short tubular structure connected at its superior end to the cervix, and at its inferior end to the outside of the body 3" in length
  24. Vulva
    area between the inner thighs that include the external genitalia as well as the mons pubis
  25. Amniotic Fluid
    surrounds and cushioons the developing embryo and fetus AKA: bag of water
  26. Antepartum
    from the mothers stand point, the pweiod of time from conception untill labor & delivery AKA Mom
  27. Embryo
    a fertilized ovum (a zygote) is and embryo from 4 days after fertilization through 8 weeks of gestation- then it becomes a fetus
  28. Fertilization
    act of a spermatoza uniting with and ovum, AKA: conception
  29. Fetus
    an embryo becomes a fetus beginning at 9 weeks gestation it is called a fetus until the moment of birth
  30. Fraternal Twins
    the ovary releases two ova that are thn ferilized at the same time but by differnet spermatozoa
  31. Gestation
    period of time from the moment of fertilization of the ovum until birth, approx 9 months, 38-42 weeks
  32. Identical Twins
    an already developing zygote splits in two, develops into two seperate indentical embryo
  33. Placenta
    ls large pancake like organ that develops from the chorion, provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus, and removes carbondioxide and waste products. AKA: afterbirth
  34. Pregnancy
    state of being with childm begins at the moment of conception
  35. Prenatal Period
    from the fetus stand point, period of time from conception to birth
  36. Products of Conception
    the fetus, placenta, and all fluids & tissues in the pregnaunt uterus
  37. Trimester
    a period of 3 months, the time of gestation is divided into 3 trimesters
  38. Umbilical Cord
    rubbery, flexiable cord, that connectx ghd placenta to the umbillicus (navel) of the fetus, contains two artieris and one vein
  39. Braxton Hicks Contractions
    irregular uterine contractions during the last trimester, strenghtens the uterine muscle in preperationfor labor AKA: false labor
  40. Cephalic Presentation
    position of the fetus whih the head is the presenting part that is first to go through the birth canal
  41. Colostrum
    first mill from the breast, rich in nutrients and contains maternal antibodies to give the newborn passive imm unity to common diseases
  42. Crowning
    top of the fetal head is visiable at the vaginal introitus
  43. Dilation
    widening of the cervical os from 0cm to 10cm during labor to allow passage of the fetal head
  44. Effacement
    thinning of the cervical wall measured as a percentage from 0 percent to 100 percent AKA: lightening
  45. Involution
    process by which the uterus gradually returns to a normal size after chlidbirth
  46. Lactation
    production of colostrum and then breat milk by the mammary glands after childbirth
  47. Postpartum
    from the mothers stand point the period of time after delivery
  48. Rupture of Membrane (ROM)
    rupture of the amniotic sac during the first stage of labor with release of the amniotic fluid, AKA: water breaking
  49. Fontanels
    soft areas of the head between the bones of the cranium in a newborn, AKA: soft spots
  50. Meconium
    first stools passed by a newborn, freenish-black, thick, sticky substance
  51. Molding
    reshaping of the fetal cranium as it passes through the mothers pelvic bones
  52. Neonate
    a newborn from the timeof birth until 1year of age
  53. Anovulation
    failure of the ovaries to release a mature ovum ath the time of ovulation, although menstral cycle is normal, results in infertility
  54. Ovarian Cancer
    cancerous tumor of an ovary, Does not cause sypmtoms until it is quite large and mestazied
  55. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    the ovaries contain multiple cyst- a follicle matures and enlarges, but fails to rupture to release an ovum, then becomes a cyst
  56. Salpingitis
    inflammation or infection of the uterine tube, caused by endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease
  57. Endometrial Cancer
    cancerous tumor of the endometrium of the uteris, earliest sign is abnormal bleeding.
  58. Endometriosis
    endometrial tissu in abnormal places
  59. Leiomyoma
    benign smooth muscle tumor of the myumetrium, can be small or as large as a soccar ball, pelvic pain,exessive uterine bleeding paiinful intercourse
  60. Myometritis
    inflamaton or infection of the myometrium, associated with pelvic inflamatory disease
  61. Pelvic Inflamatory Disease (PID)
    infection of the cervix that ascends to the uterus, uterine tubes,and ocaries, often caused by a STD, pelvic pain, fever, and urinary discharge
  62. Retroflexion of the Uterus
    abnormal position in which the entire uterus is bent backward, while the cervis is in a mornal postion
  63. Uterine Prolapse
    descent of the uterus from its normal position, caused by stetching of the ligaments that supports the uterus, because of childbirth or age
  64. Amenorrhea
    abscence of monthly menstral periods, caused by hormonal imbalnce, thyroid disease, tumor of the uterus or ovary, caused by poor nutruition, stress, chronic disese intense exercise or anorexia
  65. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
    sporatic menstrual bleeding, without a true menstral period, often occurs with anovulation
  66. Menopause
    normal excession of menstral periods, occuring around middle age, AKA: change of life
  67. Menorrhagia
    menstrual period with excessively heavy flow or a menstral period that lasts longer than 7 days caused by hormone inbalance, uterine fibroids, or endometriosis
  68. Oligomenorrhea
    a menstral period with very light flow or infrequent menstral cycles, (longer than 35 days before the next cycle begins), caused by homonal inbalance
  69. Premenstral Syndrome (PMS)
    breast tenderness, fluid retention, bloating and mild mood changes, (irrability, anger, sadness) a few days before the onset of menstration. Caused by high levels of estradiol and progesterone.
  70. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
    symptoms of PMS plus feelings of depression, anxiety, tearfulness, mood shifts, difficulty concentrating, sleepong and eating disruptions, breast, joint and muscle pain. Psychiactric mood disorder. Caused by neurotransmitters
  71. Cervical Cancer
    canerous tumor of the cervix
  72. Carcinoma in situ (CIS)
    localized cancer
  73. Cervical Dysplasia
    abnorma growth of the squamos cells in the surface layer of the cervix
  74. Incompetant Cervix
    spontaneous premature dilation of the cervix during the second trmester of pregnancy, can result in spontanious abortion
  75. Candidiasis
    yeast infection of the vagina due to candida vaginalis, vaginal itching, and cheesy white discharge, can occur after taking antibiotics
  76. Cystocle
    herniation of the bladder into the vagina because of weakness in the vaginal wall, caused by childbirth or age
  77. Rectocele
    herniation of the rectum, into the vagina because of weakness in the baginal wall caused by childbirth or aged
  78. Vaginitis
    vaginal inflamation or infection.can be caused by spermicidal jelly, or douches
  79. Breast Cancer
    cancerous tumor, usually an adenocarrcimoma of the lactiferous lobules of the breast. there can be swelling, enlarged lymph nodes and nipple disccharge
  80. Fibrocystic Disease
    benign condition in which numerous fibrous and fluid filled cyst form in one or both breasts cyst are painful and tender
  81. Abnormal Presentation
    birth position in which the presenting part of the fetus is not the head
  82. Breech Presentation
    presenting part is the buttocks, buttocks & feet or just the feet
  83. Malpresentation
    the shoulder or arm is the presentring part
  84. Abrupto Placentae
    complete or partial seperation of the placentae from the uterine wall before the third stage of labor results are uterin hermorrage, threatens the life of the mother, as well as the fetus
  85. Cephalopelvic Disproportion (CPD)
    the size of the feal head exceeds the size of the opening oth the mothers pelvic bones
  86. Dystocia
    any type of difficult or abnormal labor and delivery
  87. Ectopic Preganncy
    implantation of a fertilized ovum somewhere other than in the uterus such as tubal pregnacny
  88. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    temporaty disorder of glucose metagolism that occurs nly during pregnanacy
  89. Hydatidiform Mole
    abnormal union of an ovum and spermatazoa. Produces hundreds of fluid-filled sacs, but no embryo
  90. Mastitis
    inflamation or infection of the breasr, caused by milk engorgement in the breast, or by infection
  91. Oligohydramnios
    decreased volume of amniotic fluid, fetus swallows amniotic fluid, but does not excrete a similar volume in its urnine, because of a congential defect of the fetal kidneys
  92. Placenta Previa
    incorrect position of the placenta with its edge partially or completly covering the cervical canal, causes moderate to severe bleeding in the mother
  93. Polyhydramnios
    increased volume of amnitotic fluid, caused by maternal diabetes mellitus, twin gestation, abnormalities in the fetus
  94. Postpartum Hemorrhage
    continual bleeding from the site where the placenta seperated after delivery
  95. Preclampsia
    hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with increase blood pressure, edema, wieght gain, and protien in the urine
  96. Premature Labor
    regular uterine contractions that occur before the fetus is mature
  97. Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM)
    spontainopus rupture of the amniotic sac and loss of amniotic fluid, before labor begins. Mother must deliver or risk the develoment of infection within 24 hours
  98. Spontainous Abortion (SAB)
    loss of pregnancy AKA: miscarriage
  99. Fetal Distress
    lack of oxygen to the fetus, because of decreased blood flow through the placenta or umbllical cord
  100. Jaundice
    yellowish discloration of the skn in a newborn. During gestation the fetus has extra red blood cells that are no longer needed
  101. Meconium Aspiration
    fetal distress causes the fetus to pass meconiam into the amniotic fluid. If inhaled with the first breath, can cause severe respiratory distress
  102. Nuchal Cord
    umbillical cord is wrapped around the neck of the fetus, can cause brain damage or fetal death
  103. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
    difficulth inflating the lungs, because of lack of surfactant, mainly in premature newborns
  104. Biospy
    procedure to remove a small piece of tissue for examination to look for abnormal or cancerous cells
  105. Pap Smear
    screening cytology test used to detect abnormal cells or carcinoma of the cervix
  106. Amniocentesis
    • 1.Chromosome Studies,sex of the fetus,downsyndrome
    • 2.Alpha Fetoprotien (AFP)-nureal tube defrct
    • 3. L/S Ratio-fetal lung maturity
  107. Mammography
    procedure that uses xrays to create an image of the breast
  108. Ultrasonography
    Procedure that uses high frequency sound waves produces and image on computer clearly detailed
  109. Transsvaginal Ultrasound
    probe inserted in the vagina to examine the endometrium of the uterus
  110. Colposcopy
    procedure that uses a magnifying lighted scope to visually examine the vagina and cervix
  111. Cryosurgery
    procedure to destroy small areas of tissue (abnormal) on the cervix
  112. Amniotomy
    procedure in which a hook is inserted into the cervical os to rupture the amniotic sac and induce labor
  113. Apgar Score
    assigns a score to a newborn at least 5 minutes after birth
  114. Epideral Anesthesia
    local anethisia to reduce and decrease labor and delivery pains not given until the cervix is dialted more than 4cm
  115. Obstetrical History
    • Gravida- number of times pregnaunt
    • Para- number of premature births
  116. Dilation & Curettage (D & C)
    procedure to remove abnormal tissue from inside the uterus
  117. Hysterecromy
    procedure to remove the uterus
  118. Myomectomy
    to remove leiomyomata or fibriods from the uterus
  119. Ooophorectomy
    to remove an ovary, because large ovarian cyst, or ovarion cancer
  120. Salpingectomy
    to remove the uterine tube because of ovarian cancer or ectopic pregnancy
  121. Salpingo-Oophorectomy (BSO)
    to remove uterine tubes and both ovaries
  122. Salping/o
    uterine (fallopian tubes)
  123. Tubal Ligation
    procedure to prevent pregnancy
  124. Conization
    to remove a large cone shaped section of tissue that includes the cervical os and part of the cervical canal, an area of abnormality identified by a pap smear
  125. Mammoplasty
    to change the size, shape or position of the breast
  126. Augmentation
    enlarge the size of the breast
  127. Pendulous
    large breasts
  128. Mastectomy
    surgical resection of all or part of the breast to excise a malignant tumor
  129. Cerclage
    procedure to place a pursestring suture around the cervix to prevent it from dilationg prematuraly
  130. Episiotomy
    surgical incision in the posterior edge of the vagina to prevent a spontaneous tear during delivery of the babys mhead
  131. AB, Ab
  132. AGA
    appropiate for gestational age
  133. BSO
    bilateral salping-oorphorectomy
  134. Bx
  135. Ca
    cancer, carcinoma
  136. Cis
    carcinoma in situ
  137. CPD
    cephalopelvic disproprtion
  138. CS
    cesearan section
  139. D & C
    dilation and curretage
  140. DUB
    dysfunctional uterine bleeding
  141. EDB
    estimated date of birth
  142. EDC
    estimated date of confinement
  143. EGA
    estimated gestational age
  144. PID
    pelvic inflammatory disease
  145. PMS
    premenstral syndrome
  146. PROM
    prmature rupture of membranes
  147. ROM
    rupture of membrane
  148. SAB
    spontainous abortion