MA 201 Body Structure

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Author:
Shutrbug20
ID:
73960
Filename:
MA 201 Body Structure
Updated:
2011-03-20 18:29:38
Tags:
EKG Diagnostic
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Description:
Chapter 16 Unit 2-3
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  1. Cardiology
    Study of heart disease and disfunction
  2. Electrocardiogram
    • Instrument used by cardiologyst
    • Traces impulses of heart on paper to create perm. record
    • Electrodes placed on patient
    • Wires connect to electrodes, send signals to amplifier
    • transformed into mechanical motion by Galvanometer
    • Stylus produces printed info
  3. 6 EKG Measurements
    • 1. Measurement
    • 2. Rate
    • 3. Rhythm
    • 4. Duration
    • 5. Intervals
    • 6. Segments
  4. SA Node
    • Self Pacemaker
    • Begin of heart cycle
    • Contract Atria (P-Wave)
  5. AV Node
    • Slight pause
    • Allows ventricles to fill
    • Q-Wave
  6. Bundle of His
    • Bifurcates to Lt and Rt Bundle Branches
    • R-Wave
  7. Purkinje Fibers
    • Ventricular contraction
    • Blood discharge
    • S-Wave
  8. Electrical Impulse Path
    • 1. SA Node - first impulse (P-Wave)
    • 2. AV Node - out to Bundle of His, Bundle Branch, then Purkinje Fibers - cause ventricles to contract (QRS-Wave)
    • 3. Repolarization - time of recovery of ventricles (T-Wave)
  9. Routine EKG
    • 12 Leads (10 electrodes) or recordings
    • First 3 (standard / bipolar) - Labeled I, II, III
    • 6 Chest / Precordial leads
  10. EKG Interference
    • 1. Patient muscle movement (somatic)
    • 2. AC - electrical activity

    • 3. Lead 1 = RA to LA
    • 4. Lead 2 = RA to LL
    • 5. Lead 3 = LL to LA
  11. Standardization
    Necessary to enable physician to judge deviations from the standard
  12. EKG Characteristics
    • 1. Trace paper speed 25mm per second
    • 2. Simultaneous 12-lead interpretive analysis
    • 3. Ages 35-40 should make baseline reading, every 5-10 yrs after
  13. Stress Test
    Done while on treadmill or bike to assess heart's ability to work under stress
  14. Holter Monitor
    • Will reveal any cardiac arrhthmias, chest pain, effectiveness of meds, and patient symptoms
    • Ambulatory (walking)
    • Keep diary
    • Note any pain or discomfort
    • Press "event button" for any cardiac symptoms
    • Sponge bath - not shower or tub
  15. Vital Capacity Test
    • Greatest volume of air that can be expelled during complete, slow, unforced expiration (nose clip useed)
    • Spirometer - used to measure
    • Ht, wt, and vitals should be taken during visit
    • Watch for signs of stress, dizziness, coughing
  16. Sonograms
    • Obtained by ultrasonic scanning (ultrsonography)
    • Use reflections / echoes directed into tissues
    • Conducted through transducer (hand held)
  17. Echocardiography
    • Echoes to examine the heart
    • Viewed on Oscilloscope
  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Noninvasive procedures
    • Becomes invasive when intravenous contrast media introduced
    • Don't even wear mascara

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