PSY491_Ch8_Glossary

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Anonymous
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PSY491_Ch8_Glossary
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2011-03-20 00:39:09
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Ch. 8: Extinction and Stimulus Control
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  1. anticipatory contrast
    The process whereby the rate of responses varies inversely with an upcoming ("anticipated") change in the rate of reinforcement.
  2. behavioral contrast
    A change in the rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces an opposite change in the rate of response on another component.
  3. delayed matching-to-sample
    An experimental procedure in which the animal is first shown a sample stimulus and then, following some delay, is required to select that stimulus out of a group of alternative stimuli.
  4. differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
    Reinforcement of any behavior other than a target behavior that is being extinguished. One variant of this is called differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI), in which the behavior that is being reinforced is specifically incompatible with the behavior being extinguished.
  5. discrimination training
    As applied to operant conditioning, the differential reinforcement of responding in the presence of one stimulus (the discriminative stimulus) and not another.
  6. discriminative stimulus for extinction (S to the Delta power)
    A stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement.
  7. errorless discrimination training
    A discrimination training procedure that minimizes the number of errors (i.e., nonreinforced responses to the discriminative stimulus for extinction) and reduces many of the adverse effects associated with discrimination training.
  8. extinction
    The nonreinforcement of a previously response, the result of which is a decrease in the strength of that response.
  9. extinction burst
    A temporary increase in the frequency and intensity of responding when extinction is first implemented.
  10. fading
    The process of gradually altering the intensity of a stimulus.
  11. generalization gradient
    A graphic description of the strength of responding in the presence of stimuli that is similar to the discriminative stimulus and varies along a continuum.
  12. multiple schedules
    A complex schedule consisting of two or more independent schedules presented in sequence, each resulting in reinforcement and each having a distinctive discriminative stimulus.
  13. negative contrast effect
    The process whereby an increase in the rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces a decrease in the rate of response on the other component.
  14. partial reinforcement effect
    The process whereby behavior that has been maintained on an intermittent (partial) schedule of reinforcement extinguishes more slowly than behavior that has been maintained on a continuous schedule.
  15. peak shift effect
    Following discrimination training, the peak of a generalization gradient will shift from the discriminative stimulus to a stimulus that is further removed from the discriminative stimulus for extinction.
  16. positive behavioral contrast
    The process whereby a decrease in a rate of reinforcement on one component of a multiple schedule produces an increase in the rate of response on the other component.
  17. resistance to extinction
    The extent to which responding persists after an extinction procedure has been implemented.
  18. resurgence
    The reappearance during extinction of other behaviors that had once been effective in obtaining reinforcement.
  19. spontaneous recovery
    The reappearance of an extinguished response following a rest period after extinction.
  20. stimulus control
    A situation in which the presence of a discriminative stimulus reliably affects the probability of a behavior.
  21. stimulus discrimination
    In operant conditioning, the tendency for an operant response to be emitted more in the presence of one stimulus than another.
  22. stimulus generalization
    In operant conditioning, the tendency for an operant response to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the discriminative stimulus.

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