Chapter Four

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Chapter Four
2011-03-23 17:58:54
Tissue living fabric

Bio 101 Anatomy and physiology
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  1. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Elongated cells
    • Nuclei location at the same level
    • Can be ciliated or no ciliated
    • Non ciliated found in uterus and digestive tract
    • Secretion and absorption
    • Have microvilli to increase surface area
    • Have goblet cells scattered in between them
  2. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Cube shaped cells
    • Covers the ovaries and found in the kidneys & ducts of glands
    • Secretion and absorption
  3. Transitional Epithelium
    • Specialized cells that change shape is response to tension
    • Found in the bladder, the ureter, and part of the urethra
    • Could be un-stretched or stretched
    • Cuboidal when contracted
    • Expandable lining
    • Prevents the contents of the urinary tract from diffusing back
  4. Simple Squamous
    • Longitude section
    • Common for passage of molecules through diffusion
    • Found in lungs and blood capillaries
    • Covers membrane of body cavities
  5. Epithelial tissue
    • Found throughout the body
    • Cover the body, organs, and lines hollow cavities(inside any organ with hollow i.e. nose, mouth)
    • Protection (physical damage, sun,)
    • [Allow movement of substance]
    • Absorption (taking into the blood)
    • Filtration
    • Secretion (releasing something)
  6. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Appears stratified
    • Commonly have cilia
    • Has Goblet cells embedded within
    • Lines the passage way of the respiratory system
  7. Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Cells divideed in deep layer
    • Cells are pushed upward
    • Top cells are flatter
    • Found in the skin and become keratinized
    • Lines oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, and anal canal (no keratin)
  8. Stratified Columnar Epithelium

    • Multiple layer of cells
    • Basal layer is cuboidal
    • Found in male urethra, vas deferens, and pharynx
    • [most rare]
  9. Stratified cuboidal epithelium

    • Made of two or three layers
    • Found in mammary, sweat, and salivary glands, and pancreas
    • Also found in ovarian follicle amd seminferous tubules
    • [very rare]
  10. Tissues
    • Made of groups of cells
    • Four major tissues
    • Epithelial for protection
    • Connective for support
    • Muscular for movement
    • Nervous for control
  11. How are Epithelial cells classified
    • Number of cell layers
    • Simple-One layer
    • Stratified-Multiple layer
    • Shape
    • Squamous-Flat shape
    • Cuboidal-Cube shape
    • Columnar-Column shape
  12. Characteristic of Epithelial
    • Anchored to connective tissue known as the basement membrane
    • Lack blood vessels
    • Constantly divide
    • Tightly packed
  13. Connective tissue Charateristic
    • Cells are further apart from each other
    • Have extracellular matrix (space in between cells)
    • Have high vascularization (lots of blood vessels)
    • Vary being rigid (bones) or flexiable (adipose)
  14. Adipose Tissue (Fat)

    • Adiposcytes store fat
    • Underneath skin, in between muscles, around kidneys, behind eye balls
    • Cushions joints and organs
    • Acts as an insulator
    • Stores energy
    • Bone connective tissue
    • Most rigid
    • Contains lots of calcium, phosphate, and calcium carbonate
    • Collagen fibers
    • Protects vital organs
    • Contains red bone marrow which forms bloos cells.
    • Osteocytes
  15. Hyaline Cartilage Connective tissue
    • Fine collagen fibers
    • Located on
    • End of long bones
    • Nose
    • Rings of trachea
    • Iportant in boone growth
    • [Glassy, very thin; always comes in 2s]
  16. Loose connective tissue (Areolar)
    • Forms thin membranes
    • Contains many fibroblasts
    • Binds the skin to underlying organs
    • Found under epithelium cells
  17. Cartilage connective tissue
    • Provides support
    • Protects underlying tissues
    • Chondrocytes are found in the lacunae
    • Matrix
    • Vascularized perichondrium covering provide chondrocytes withnutrients
    • Heals slowly
    • Hyline, elastic, and Firbrocartilage
  18. Categories of connective tissue
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Loose, Adipose, Dense
    • Specialize connective tissue
    • Cartilage, Bone , blood
  19. Muscle Tissue
    • Cells have the ability to contract and produce force
    • Three major types
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
    • Will be discussed in chapter 8
  20. Elastic Cartilage connective tissue
    • Contains lots of elastic fibers
    • More flexible than hyaline
    • Found in ear and larynx
    • [thick matrix]
  21. Blood Connective tissue
    • Transports material to and from cells
    • Maintains stable internal enviroment
    • Composed of formed elements and plasma
    • Originates from bone marrow
  22. Connective tissue function
    • Supports
    • Protection
    • Store fat
    • Produce blood
    • Protect against indection
    • Repair damage
  23. Skeletal muscle tissue
    • Voluntary muscles
    • Alternating light and dark bands called striations
    • Multi-nucleated
    • Innervated by nervous tissue
    • Allows us to move and make facial expressions, chew, swallow breath, etc.
  24. Dense connective tissue
    • Made of many collagen fibers
    • Few fibroblasts
    • Provides strength
    • Found in tendons and ligaments
    • Poor vascularization
  25. Types of Cells found in connective tissue
    Fixed cells: stay for long period of time

    • Wandering: move through Fibroblasts (fiber)
    • Fixed: star shaped cells
    • Produced fibers into the matrix (collagen, elastic, and rectangular)
    • [part of immune system]
    • Macrophages
    • White blood cells
    • Phagocytes
    • Mast cells
    • Located near blood vessels
    • Release heparin and histamine
  26. Fibrocatilage connective tissue

    • Very tough
    • Abundant amount of collegen fibers
    • Shock absorbent
    • Intervertebral disk, knee, and pelvic girdle
  27. Smooth Muscle tissue
    • No striations
    • Involuntary
    • Cells are shorter than skeletal muscles
    • Single central nucleus
    • Found around hollow organs
  28. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • Found in the heart only
    • Cells are striated and branched
    • Singled nucleus
    • Cells have special connection known as intercalated disc
    • Involuntary
  29. Nervous tissue
    • Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
    • Two types of cells:
    • Neuruons--communication
    • Neuroglial--support
    • Neurons transmit nerve impulse
    • Neurons communicate with each other and with muscle cells
    • Regulate, integrate, and coordinate movements