Chapter Two

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Author:
dwatters
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73971
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Chapter Two
Updated:
2011-03-23 17:07:14
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chemical basis life
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Bio 100
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  1. Composition of Matter
  2. * Elements are the fundamental units of matter
    • * Four main elements make up almost all the human body
    • o Carbon--C
    • o Oxygen--O
    • o Hydrogen--H
    • o Nitrogen--N
    • * Elements are made of atoms
    • Structure of an Atom
  3. * Lithium
    • o Protons (3)
    • o Neutrons (4)
    • o Electrons (3)
    • Protons and Electrons equal amount
  4. Interaction of Atoms:
    • Molecules
    • * Covalent bond is sharing of electrons between two atoms
    • * Hydrogen and oxygen interact via a covalent bond to form a water molecule
  5. Interaction of Electrons: Ionic Bonds
    • 1. Complete transfer of electrons
    • 2. Positive attracts negative
    • 3. Na lost an electron
    • 4. Cl gains an electron
    • 5. Na + Cl form Ionic Bond
  6. Symbol for Covalent Bonds
    • * The symbol of a covalent bond is a dash(-)between to atoms
    • * Examples of Molecules that form via covalent bonds:
    • o Hydrogen molecule
    • o Oxygen molecule
    • o Water molecule
    • o Carbon dioxide molecule
    • * H-O-H
  7. Biochemistry
    • * Inorganic compounds
    • o Lack carbon
    • * Organic compounds
    • o Any molecule that contains carbon
    • o Form covalent bonds
    • Complete transfer of one Atom to another Atom
  8. Structure of Amino Acids
    • * There are twenty known amino acids found in proteins of living organisms
    • * Each amino acid has a central carbon that forms four covalent bonds
  9. Proteins
    • * Long chains of amino acids
    • * Contains Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
    • * Account for half our body
    • * Extremely important in cell function
    • * Allow the movement of ions and molecules in and out of the cell
    • * Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
    • [most abundant and most diverse]
  10. Lipids
    • * Contains Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    • * Made of glycerol and fatty acids
    • * Insoluble in water
    • * Stores energy
    • * Forms membrane of cells
    • * Exists in our body in the form of steroids
    • (vitamins and hormones)
    • [Adipose tissue--body fat under skin]
  11. Carbohydrates
    • * Large chain of sugar molecules
    • * Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    • * Very important source of energy
    • * Found in every cell in our body
    • * Abundant in plants and animals
    • [1st stored in Muscle, 2nd stored in liver; grains #1 most used, corn #2]
  12. Organic macromolecules
    • * Carbohydrates
    • * Proteins
    • * Lipids
    • * Nucleic acid
  13. Organic molecules found in our body
    • 1. Sacharrides (sugar)
    • 2. Amino acids (protein)
    • 3. Fatty acids (fat)
    • 4. Nucelotides (nucleic acids)
    • * These molecules form covalent bonds
    • * They are known as macromolecules
  14. Inorganic ions: Acidity
    • * Acidity is the level of hydrogen ion found in our body
    • * Must be maintained at a consistent level
    • * pH is the measure of acidity
    • * Blood pH is 7.4
    • * Buffers prevent changes in acidity (bicarbonate: maintain pH)
  15. Ions found in our body: Salts
    • * Ions dissolved in the blood
    • * Important for many functions
    • * Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium
  16. Inorganic molecules found in our body: Water (solvent of life)
    • * The most abundant molecule in our body (~70%)
    • * Stores a lot of heat
    • * A universal solvent
    • * Cushioning properties
    • * Major component of blood
  17. Proteins as Enzymes
    • * Enzymes are important in cellular chemical reactions
    • * Chemical reactions are important in cell survival
    • [Primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, quaternary structure]
  18. Nucleic acid
    • * Forms genes that take part in coding for various cellular functions
    • * Blue prints of life
    • * Made of Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
    • * Made of nucleotides
  19. Nucleotides
    Each Nucleotide is made of sugar, base, and a phosphate group
  20. Bases in Nucleotides
    • * A=adenine
    • * G=guanine
    • * C=cytosine
    • * T=Thymine (only in DNA)
    • * U=Uracil (only in RNA)
  21. DNA: a type of Nucleic acid
    • * Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA)
    • * Double strand
    • * Forms hydrogen bonds
    • * A sequence of genes
    • * Makes RNA
    • * Replicates before the start of cell
    • * Does not have uracil
  22. RNA: a Type of Nucleic Acid
    • * Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    • * Codes for protein
    • * Single strand
    • * Made from DNA
    • * Contains uracil instead of thymine

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