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What is a small-Bore Nasoenteric tube?
A feeding tube that is inserted through the nose when a client is unable to ingest food but is still able to digest and absorb nutrients. Ussually in this method the tube is inserted in for no more than 4 weeks total.
What is the 1st step in inserting a small-Bore Nasoenteric tube?
Asses the client for the enteral tube
Clear liquids diet
Melted into clear liquids at room temperature. For example Broth, tea, clear fruit juices, gelatin, popsicles
Full liquid diet
Melted into liquid at room temperature. Doesnt have to be clear. For example Custards, cooked cereal, Mashed potatoes, gravy, fruit
Low residue Diets
For example addition of low fiber, easily digested food like pasta, caseroles, moist tender meats, canned fruits and vegtables, cakes and cookies without nuts or coconut. Everything must be thouroughly cooked!!
High Fiber diets
Addition of fresh uncooked fruits, steamed vegtables, bran, oatmeal, and dried fruits
The usual caloric recommendation is around 1800 calories. A balanced intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Caloric recommendations vary to accommodate the clients metabolic needs. Little sugar and carbs
All liquids that melt at room temperature and also scrammbled eggs, pureed meats, vegetables, fruits, mashed potatoes and gravy
What is Dysphagia?
Difficulty in swallowing. Dysphagia is due to problems in nerve or muscle control. It is common, for example, after a stroke. Dysphagia compromises nutrition and hydration and may lead to aspiration pneumonia and dehydration
What is a orogastric tube?
A tube that goes through the mouth into the stomach.
What is a nasogastric tube?
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube, NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach
What is a Esophagostomy?
An esophagostomy tube is a small rubber tube that enters the esophagus (food tube) through the skin of the neck. It goes into the esophagus so that food can be delivered to the stomach
What is a gastrostomy?
A soft plastic tube that is inserted and sutured into a surgical opening that leads from the stomach to the surface of the abdomen. A gastrostomy tube is used for long term tube feedings in patients who cannot eat to prevent malnutrition.
What is Jejunostomy?
Jejunostomy refers to an artificial opening into the jejunum. It is performed to allow feeding tube placement. Jejunostomy is an alternative to gastrostomy when the stomach is unsuitable for a feeding tube
What is Enteral Nutrition?
nourishment provided through the stomach or small intestine rather than by the oral route
Islam Dietary restrictions
- Ramadan fasting( for 1 month)
- Ritualized methods for animal slaughter
Christianity Diatary restrictions
- Minimal or no alcohol
- Holy day may restrict meat
Hinduism dietary restriction
Judaism Dietary restrictions
- predatory fowl
- shellfish(eat only with scales)
- rare meat
- mixing milk with meat
- kosher preparations
- on yom kippur 24hr fasting
- no bread eating during passover
- no cooking on sabbath (saturday)
Mormons dietary restrictions
- Limit meat
Seventh-day Adventists church
- Shell fish
- Vegetarian encouraged
There are several types of vegetarian diets; the common factor is that it exclude red meats from the diet.
use dairy products & eggs, but no meats
use dairy products, but exclude meats, poultry & eggs
avoid all animal foods sources; use soybeans, chickpeas, meat analogues and tofu
Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components that can be absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Digestion is a form of catabolism: a break-down of larger food molecules to smaller ones.
In the digestive system, absorption means the uptake of digested food into the blood.
After nutrients are absorbed they are available to all the cells in the body and are utilized in these cells by metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reaction that take place in the body including their utilization.
The main function of carbohydrates is to provide your body with energy. Carbohydrates usually provide about have of your body's energy when your resting or performing a low-level activity. Carbohydrates are important components of building muscle.
Carbohydrates are found in breads, pastas, candy, sodas, wines, beer, fruits.
When the body doesn't need to use the carbohydrates for energy, it stores them into the liver and muscles. When carbohydrates are stored in your liver and muscles, it is called glycogen. When the liver and muscles cells cannot store anymore glycogen, it is turned into fat.
Fat is used as both an energy supply and insulation.
Fats are very important in our lives. providing for example the materials for components of cell membranes, of the myelin sheaths that electrically insulate nerve fibres. It is also a reservoir for storing excess energy obtained from the diet.
- The most important function of protein is to build up, keep up, and replace the tissues in your body. Your muscles, your organs, and some of your hormones are made up mostly of protein.
- Protein also makes antibodies and hemoglobin (responsible for delivering oxygen to your blood cells).
- Foods high in Protein
- Eggs, milk, meat, apricots, avocados, bananas, cherries, dates, figs, nuts, beans, and grapes.
Iron - Iron is an important mineral. It is needed to help our red blood cells deliver oxygen to the rest of the body. Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. Its function is to Transport and storage of oxygen. Aid in energy production and cell diffusion. Helps the immune and central nervous systems.
- Some examples of minerals are:
- Calcium - is a mineral that plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the bones. Calcium is also needed in tooth formation and is important in other body functions.
- Calcium is one of the most important and most abundant minerals in the human body.
- Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure. Foods that contain magnesium is green vegetable, nuts and seeds, and unrefined grains.
- Zinc supports a healthy immune system, is needed for wound healing, helps maintain your sense of taste and smell, and is needed for DNA synthesis. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Foods that contain this are oyster, red meat, nuts beans, poultry, and whole grain
Vitamins are necessary for growth and vitality. They are found in all natural foods. We must obtain vitamins from foods or dietary supplements. It is impossible to sustain life without all the essential vitamins.
- Some examples of what vitamins do:
- energize our metabolism
- regulate our metabolism
- help form blood clots when we bleed
- enable cell growth
- help us see in color instead of black and white
For mostly everything. Transportation, Food, It Help to remove waste. Just alot of things. IT's often very imporant because 60% of you body is made up of water. So, you constanly need new water to supply the old water thats was used and removed. It also restores the body's homeostasis.
Provider of Care
assess client’s intake, report and record deficits, needs & strengths; prepare meals, encourage feeding and assist clients who are not able to feed themselves
provide information and coach clients in required skills to maintain good nutrition health.
assist clients in making decisions affecting their nutritional needs; address attitudes, feelings, and behaviors to encourage the client in achieving self control.
act to protect and support the client’s rights; impart necessary information so that the client can make their own decisions; clients have the right to be informed of therapeutic nutritional treatments/ options, risks and expected outcomes.
Infants nutritional factors
sucking, swallowing and rooting reflexes enable the infant to secure foods
nutritional needs can be met with iron-enriched formula or breast milk
solid foods are introduced around the 5th month, one at a time, in order to detect any adverse reactions to foods.
Toddler nutritional status
the need for milk decrease as the diet of solid foods increase
dietary caloric allowance is about 1,300 calories per day
children prefer simple finger foods, and will eat the same foods every day “food jags”.
Adolscent nutritional status
School aged nutritional status
caloric requirement is based on the child’s body size, activity, and metabolism
foods are chosen based on the food pyramid and the child should avoid eating foods high in saturated fats, and sedentary lifestyles;
A person BMI is equal to/or exceeds 30/kg/mg
general wasting away of body tissue/lean muscle
a psychological disorder that is associated with loss of appetite & 20%-25% decrease in body weigh
precede vomiting; client feels faint, weak, dizziness, perspiration, skin pallor, & rapid pulse
loss of stomach content through the mouth
elimination of gas through the mouth
is gas formed in the intestines and release via the rectum
abnormal fx passage of liquid stool…loss of liquid, nutrients & electrolytes
difficult, infrequent passage of stool
Lab data for albumin
3.5 - 5.5 g/dL
Lab data for Serum Creatin
0.6 - 1.6 g/dL
Lab data for Cholestrol
Lab data for triglycerides
- male: >40 - 160mg/dL
- Female:>35 - 135mg/dL
What is the RDA?
stands for "Recommended Dietary Allowance," the government-recommended daily amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals for healthy adults.
What is osteoporosis?
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
What is cardiovascular disorder?
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an abnormal function of the heart or blood vessels. It can cause an increase in risk for heart attack, heart failure, sudden death, stroke and cardiac rhythm problems.
In order to help prevent cardiovascular disease one must adopt a healthy lifestyle and avoid smoking, fattening foods and stress.
What is a gastrointestinal disorder?
Functional disorders are those in which the bowel looks normal but doesn’t work properly. They are the most common problems affecting the colon and rectum, and include constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The primary causes for functional disorders include:
Eating a diet low in fiber
Eating large amounts of dairy products
Taking antacid medicines containing calcium or aluminum
Taking certain medicines (especially antidepressants, iron pills, and strong pain medicines such as narcotics)
What Categories does the food pyramid have?
- meat & beans