Volume 3 Chapter 11

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amerelman
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Volume 3 Chapter 11
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2010-02-22 09:11:40
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Volume 3 Chapter 11
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  1. Infectious Disease
    Illness caused by infestation of the body by biological organisms
  2. Index Case
    The individual who first introduced the infectious agent into a population
  3. Normal Flora
    Organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease
  4. Pathogen
    Organism capable of causing disease
  5. What are some major public health agencies?
    • U.S. Department of Human Health Services (DHHS), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA)
  6. Opportunistic Pathogen
    Ordinarily nonharmful bacterium that causes disease only under unusual circumstances
  7. Bacteria
    Microscopic single-celled organisms that range in length from 1 to 20 micrometers
  8. Gram Stain
    Method of differentiating types of bacteria according to their reaction to a chemical stain process
  9. Types of Bacteria
    • -Spheres (Cocci)
    • -Rods
    • -Spirals
  10. Exotoxin
    Toxic waste products released by living bacteria
  11. Endotoxin
    Toxic products released when bacteria die and decompose
  12. Bactericidal
    Capable of killing bacteria
  13. Bacteriostatic
    Capable of inhibiting bacterial growth or reproduction
  14. Virus
    Disease-causing organism that can be seen only with an electron microscope
  15. Obligate intracellular parasite
    Organism that can grow and reproduce only within a host cell
  16. Prions
    Particles of protein, folded in such a way that protease enzymes cannot act on them
  17. Fungus
    Plantlike microorganism. Rarely causes negative effects in humans
  18. Protozoan
    Single-celled parasitic organism with flexible membranes and the ability to move
  19. Parasite
    Organism that lives in or on another organism
  20. Pinworm
    Parasite that is 3 to 10 mm long and lives in the distal colon
  21. Hookworm
    Parasite that attaches to the host's intestinal lining
  22. Trichinosis
    Disease resulting from an infestation of Trichinella spiralis
  23. Reservoir
    Any living creature or environment (water,soil, etc.) that can harbor an infectious agent
  24. Bloodborne
    Transmitted by contact with blood or body fluids
  25. Airborne
    Transmitted through the air by droplets or particles
  26. Fecal-oral Route
    Transmission of organisms picked up from the gastrointestinal tract into the mouth
  27. Communicable
    Capable of being transmitted to another host
  28. Contamination
    Prescence of an agent only on the surface of the host without penetrating it
  29. Infection
    Prescence of an agent within the host, without necessarily causing disease
  30. Factors affecting disease transmission
    • -Mode of entry
    • -Virulence
    • -Number of organisms transmitted
    • -Host resistance
  31. Virulence
    An organism's strength or ability to infect or overcome the body's defenses
  32. Resistance
    A host's ability to fight off infection
  33. Latent Period
    Time when a host cannot transmit an infectious agent to someone else
  34. Communicable Period
    Time when a host can transmit an infectious agent to someone else
  35. Incubation Period
    Time between a host's exposure to infectious agent and the appearance of symptoms
  36. Antigen
    Surface protein on most viruses and bacteria that identify then as self or nonself
  37. Antibody
    Protein that is produced in response to and that attacks a disease antigen
  38. Seroconversion
    Creation of antibodies after exposure to a disease
  39. Window Phase
    Time between exposure to a disease and seroconversion
  40. Disease Period
    The duration from the onset of signs and symptoms of disease until resolution of symptoms or death
  41. Immune System
    The body's mechanism for defending against foreign invaders
  42. Reticuoloenothelial System
    The cells involved in the immune response
  43. Leukocyte
    White blood cell
  44. Neutrophil
    The most common phagocytic white blood cell
  45. Macrophage
    After neutrophils, the most common phagocytic white blood cell
  46. Phagocytosis
    Process in which certain white blood cells ingest invaders
  47. Cell-mediated immunity
    Generalized, temporary defense against any invader
  48. Humoral Immunity
    Specialized, permanent defense against a particular foreign antigen
  49. Lymphocyte
    Cell that attacks invader in immune response
  50. T lymphocytes
    Cells that attack invaders in cell-mediated immune responses
  51. B lymphocytes
    Cells that attack invaders in humoral immune responses
  52. Immunoglobulin
    Antibody
  53. Classes of Human Antibody
    • IgG: Remembers antigen and recognizes repeat invasions. Principle immunoglobulin in immune response.
    • IgM: Formed early in most immune response.
    • IgA: Is the main immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions (milk, respiratory, saliva, tears)
    • IgD: Is present on the surface of B lymphocytes, acts as an antigen receptor.
    • IgE: Attaches to mast cells in the respiratory and intestinal tracts. It plays a major role in allergic reactions. Patients with allergies generally have increased levels of this immunoglobulin.
  54. Autoimmunity
    The body's formation of antibodies against itself.
  55. Lymphatic System
    Secondary circulatory system that collects overflow fluid from the tissue space and filters it before returning it to the circulatory system.
  56. Lymph
    Overflow circulatory fluid in spaces between tissues.
  57. Passive Immunity
    Newborn's protection against disease that results from the mother's transferring some of her antibodies to the fetus.
  58. Active Immunity
    Protection against disease developed after birth as a result of a direct exposure to the disease.
  59. Phases of prehospital infection control
    • -Preparation for response
    • -Response
    • -Patient contact
    • -Recovery
  60. PPD
    Purified protein derivative, the substance used in a test for tuberculosis.
  61. Decontaminate
    To destroy or remove pathogens
  62. Decontamination Levels
    • -Low-level disinfection
    • -Intermediate level disinfection
    • -High-level disinfection
    • -Sterilization
  63. Disinfection
    To destroy certain forms of microorganisms but not all
  64. Sterilize
    To destroy all microorganisms
  65. Ryan White Act
    Federal law that outlines the rights and responsibilities of agencies and health care workers when an infectious disease exposure occurs
  66. Diseases of immediate concern
    • -HIV
    • -Hepatitis
    • -Tuberculosis
    • -Pneumonia
    • -SARS
    • -Chickenpox
    • -Meningitis
  67. Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    Organism respnsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  68. Hepatitis
    Inflammation of the liver characterized by diffuse or patchy tissue necrosis. Types: A,B,C, D, E, G.
  69. Tuberculosis
    Disease caused by bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the respiratory system
  70. Respirator
    An apparatus worn that cleanses or qualifies the air
  71. Mask
    A device for protecting the face
  72. Pneumonia
    Acute infection of the lung including alveolar spaces and interstitial tissue
  73. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    A highly infectious viral respiratory illness that first appeared in Southern China in 2002
  74. Varicella
    Viral disease characterized by a rase of fluid-filled vesicles that rupture forming small ulcers that eventually scab. AKA chickenpox
  75. Meningitis
    Inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by infection
  76. Brudzinski's Sign
    Physical exam finding in which flexion of the neck causes flexion of the hips and knees. Suggestive of Meningitis
  77. Kernig's Sign
    Inability to full extend the knees with hips flexed. Suggestive of Meningitis
  78. Influenza
    Disease caused by a group of viruses
  79. Other job-related airborne diseases
    • -Influenza and the common cold
    • -Measles
    • -Mumps
    • -Rubella
    • -Respiratory Syncytial virus
    • -Pertussis
  80. Measles
    Highly contagious, acute viral disease characterized by a reddish rash that appears on the fourth or fifth day of illness
  81. Mumps
    Acute viral disease characterized by painful enlargement of the salivary glands
  82. Rubella (German-measles)
    Systemic viral disease characterized by a fine pink rash that appears on the face, trunk and extremities. Fades quickly
  83. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
    Common cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children
  84. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
    • Disease characterized by severe violent coughing.
    • Phases:
    • -Catarrhal
    • -Paroxysmal
    • -Convalescent
  85. Viral diseases transmitted by contact
    • -Mononucleosis
    • -Herpes simplex virus type 1
  86. Monocucleosis
    Acute disease caused by the Epstein-barr virus
  87. Herpes simplex virus
    Organism that causes infections characterized by fluid-filled vesicles, usually in the oral cavity or on the genitals
  88. Other infectious respiratory conditions
    • -Epiglottitis
    • -Croup
    • -Pharyngitis
    • -Sinusitis
    • -Hantavirus
  89. Epiglottitis
    Infection causing inflammation of the epiglottis
  90. Croup
    Viral illness characterized by inspiratory and expiratory stridor and a seal barklike cough
  91. Pharyngitis
    Infection of the pharynx and tonsils
  92. Sinusitis
    Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
  93. Hantavirus
    Family of viruses that are carried by the deer mouse and transmitted by ticks and other arthropods
  94. GI System infections
    • -Gastroenteritis
    • -Food poisoning
  95. Gastroenteritis
    Generalized disorder involving nausea, vomitting, gastrointestinal cramping or discomfort and diarrhea
  96. Food Poisoning
    Nonspecific term often applied to gastroenteritis that occurs suddenly and that is caused by the ingestion of food containing preformed toxins
  97. Nervous System infections
    • -Encephalitis
    • -Rabies
    • -Tetanus
    • -Lyme disease
  98. Encephalitis
    Acute infection of the brain, usually caused by virus
  99. Rabies
    Viral disorder that affects the nervous system
  100. Tetanus
    Acute bacterial infection of the central nervous system
  101. Lyme Disease
    • Recurrent inflammatory disorder caused by tick-borne spirochete.
    • Stages:
    • -Early localized
    • -Early disseminated
    • -Late
  102. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)
    • Illness commonly transmitted through sexual contact
    • -Gonorrhea
    • -Syphillis
    • -Genital warts
    • -Herpes simplex type 2
    • -Chlamydia
    • -Trichomoniasis
    • -Chancroid
  103. Gonorrhea
    Sexually transmitted disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium
  104. Syphillis
    • Bloodborne sexually transmitted disease caused by spirochete treponema pallidum
    • Stages:
    • -Primary
    • -Secondary
    • -Latent
    • -Tertiary
  105. Genital Warts
    Warts occuring in the genital area caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV)
  106. Chlamydia
    Group of intracellular parasites that cause STDs
  107. Trichomoniasis
    Sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis
  108. Chrancoid
    Highly contagious sexually transmitted ulcer
  109. Skin Diseases
    • -Impetigo
    • -Lice
    • -Scabies
  110. Impetigo
    Infection of the skin caused by staphylococci or streptococci
  111. Lice
    Parasitic infection of the skin of the scalp, trunk or pubic area
  112. Infestation
    Presence of parasites that do not break the host's skin
  113. Scabies
    Skin disease by mite infestation and characterized by intense itching
  114. Nosocomial
    Acquired while in the hospital

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