Biochem Lab

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christian.deniega
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73991
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Biochem Lab
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2011-03-20 09:18:37
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final exam
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  1. Composition of Blood plasma
    • H20
    • nutrients
    • waste products of metabolism
    • inorganic salts
    • Enzymes, hormones, vitamins
  2. Nutrients contained in the plasma
    • plasma proteins
    • glucose
    • lipids
    • amino acids
  3. what are the plasma proteins?
    • albumin
    • fibrinogen
    • globulin
  4. plasma protein is mostly ___
    albumin
  5. delta globulins are AKA
    immunoglobulins
  6. maintains the osmotic pressure of the blood
    albumin in the blood plasma
  7. globulins that function against infection and disease
    immunoglobulins/antibodies
  8. these globulins include the glycoprotein and lipoproteins
    alpha and beta globulins
  9. they transport oligosaccharide, lipids, steroids and hormones
    alpha and beta globulins
  10. transports iron in the plasma
    transferrin
  11. transports copper in the plasma
    Ceruplasmin
  12. what are the waste products of metabolism
    • NPN
    • lactic acid
    • ketone bodies
  13. what are the NPN's
    • urea
    • uric acid
    • NH3
    • creatinine
  14. name some ketone bodies present in the blood
    • acetone
    • dihydroxybutyric acid
    • diacetic acid
  15. name inorganic salts present in the blood
    • Na
    • K
    • Ca
    • PO3
    • HCO3
  16. cells in the blood without nucleus
    • Erythrocytes
    • Thrombocytes
  17. carries hemoglogbin
    RBC
  18. body's defense against infection
    WBC
  19. responsible for blood clotting
    thrombocytes
  20. thrombocytes are AKA
    platelets
  21. what is the blood volume?
    8-8% of the total body weight
  22. blood pH
    7.35-7.45
  23. color of deoxygenated blood
    dark red/purplish
  24. color of oxygenated blood
    bright red
  25. Specific gravity of the blood
    1.045-1.075
  26. density of whole blood
    1.054-1.060g/ml
  27. density of plasma
    1.024-1.028g/ml
  28. identify the organic constituents of the blood
    • carbohydrates
    • protein
    • cholesterol
    • NPN
  29. the only sugar found in blood plasma
    glucose
  30. end product of protein catabolism
    urea
  31. end product of purine metabolism
    uric acid
  32. Test for Carbohydrates
    Benedict's test
  33. Test for protein
    • Millon's Test
    • Hopkin Cole's Test
  34. Test for Albumin
    serum + saturated salt
  35. Difference between albumin and globulin:soluble in water
    albumin
  36. Difference between albumin and globulin:totally insoluble in saturated (NH4)2PO4
    albumin
  37. Difference between albumin and globulin:partially soluble in saturated (NH4)2PO4
    globulin
  38. Difference between albumin and globulin:insoluble in water
    globulin
  39. Difference between albumin and globulin:insoluble in saturated NaCl
    globulin
  40. Difference between albumin and globulin:soluble in saturated NaCl
    albumin
  41. Difference between albumin and globulin:soluble in diluted neutral salt solution
    both albumin and globulin
  42. Difference between albumin and globulin:coagulated by heating
    both albumin and globulin
  43. Test for cholesterol
    Lieberman Buchard Test
  44. positive result for Benedict's test
    reddish brown solution after heating
  45. positive result for Millon's test
    flesh to red precipitate
  46. positive result for Hopkin Cole's test
    violet solution
  47. the positive result of Millon's test is due to ___
    tyrosine component
  48. the positive result of Hopkin Cole's test is due to ___
    Tryptophan
  49. Serum + sat (NH4)2PO4 =
    white precipitate
  50. Serum + sat (NH4)2PO4 + NaCl =
    white precipitate lessens
  51. positive result for Lieberman Buchard Test
    greenish solution
  52. the residue in the test for cholesterol is extrcted using
    CHCl3
  53. what reagents were added to cholesterol in the Liebarman Buchard test?
    acetic anhydrate and H2SO4
  54. reagent for Chloride determination
    AgNO3
  55. reagent for Phosphate determination
    ammonium molybdate
  56. reagent for irondetermination
    NH4SCN
  57. serum + AgNO3 =
    white precipitate (AgCl)
  58. blood heated -->ashash+HCl--> filteredfiltrate + NH4SCN =
    red color (FeSCN)
  59. responsible for the red color of the blood
    heme
  60. blood + H2O =
    bright red
  61. blood + H2O + stoke reagent
    dark red
  62. Inorganic macrominerals in blood
    • Chlorides
    • Phosphate
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
  63. primary anion of the extracellular fluid
    chloride
  64. primary anion of the intracellular fluid
    phosphate ions
  65. component of gastric HCl
    Chlorides
  66. serves as important function in the transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood
    chlorides
  67. condition wherein there's a lower than normal serum chloride anion concentration
    hypochloremia
  68. important in the acid-base balance of the body
    phosphate
  69. anion important in the production of ATP in the body
    phosphate
  70. condition wherein serum phosphate levels are low
    hypoparathyroidism
  71. high serum levels of phosphate
    hyperparathyroidism
  72. primary cation of the extracellular fluid
    sodium
  73. primary cation of the intracellular fluid
    potassium
  74. maintains the osmotic prssure of the extracellular fluid
    sodium
  75. ion that controls water retention in tissue spaces
    sodium
  76. ion that helps maintain blood pressure
    sodium
  77. low sodium ion concentration
    hyponatremia
  78. high sodium ion concentration
    hypernatremia
  79. principal cation of the intracellular fluid
    potassium
  80. maintains osmotic pressure of the cells
    potassium
  81. maintains the electric potential of the cells
    potassium
  82. maintains the size of the cells
    potassium
  83. low serum levels of potassium
    hypokalemia
  84. high serum levels of potassium
    hyperkalemia
  85. ions found in bones and teeth
    calcium
  86. iron deficiency
    anemia
  87. necessary for certain oxidative enzyme
    copper
  88. buffers of the blood
    • bicarbonate buffers
    • phosphate buffers
    • hemoglobin buffers
  89. acid-base disorders
    • metabolic and respiratory acidosis
    • metabolic and respiratory alkalosis
  90. low pH, low HCO3, low pCO2
    metabolic acidosis
  91. low pH, high HCO3, high pCO2
    respiratory acidosis
  92. high pH, high HCO3, high pCO2
    metabolic alkalosis
  93. high pH, low HCO3, low pCO2
    respiratory alkalosis
  94. filtrate from blood
    urine
  95. urine is the medium excretionof:
    • salts
    • acids
    • bases
    • waste products like urea, creatinine, uric acid, sulfates
  96. responsible for the color of urine
    • urobilinogen
    • urobilin
  97. urine ph
    4.6 - 8.0
  98. decrease flow of urine
    oliguria
  99. oliguria may occur during (2)
    high fever and certain kidney disease
  100. total lack of urine excretion
    anuria
  101. anuria occurs when:
    there's extensive kidney damage
  102. greater amount of urine excretion than the normal
    polyuria
  103. polyuria occurs during:
    excessive intake of waterorpathological conditions like diabetic patients
  104. a measure of the concentration of solute and the concentration power and diluting power of the kidney
    specific gravity of the urine
  105. equipment used in determining specific gravity of urine
    urinometer
  106. identify what test:urine + picric acid + NaOH
    test for creatine
  107. identify what test:urine----> NaCl crystals
    test for chlorides
  108. identify what test:urine----> NaCl crystals
    test for chlorides
  109. identify what test:Urine + HCl
    Test for carbonates
  110. identify what test:Urine + HCl + BaCl2
    Test for sulfates
  111. produced in the body from arginine, methionine and glycine
    creatinine
  112. condition in which abnormal amount of creatinine occurs in the urine
    creatinuria
  113. comprises about 1/2 of the total solids in urine
    urea
  114. increased output of ___ is seen in patients with gouty arthritis
    uric acid
  115. other organic compounds in the urine
    • amino acids
    • allantoin
    • hipporic acid
    • urobilin
  116. low NaCl output is seen during (2)
    fever and nephritis
  117. high level of output is seen in certain bone diseases and hyperparathyroidism
    phosphates
  118. low levels are found in hypoparathyroidism
    phosphates
  119. produced from the hydrolysis of urea
    NH3
  120. Other ions found in urine
    • Mg
    • Ca
    • N
    • O
    • K
  121. presence of glucose in urine
    Glycosuria
  122. presence of ketone bodies in urine
    ketonuria
  123. presence of protein in urine
    proteinuriaor albuminuria
  124. normally present in the stool but not in urine
    bile acids
  125. reagent for glucose test
    benedict's solution
  126. reagent for ketose test
    (NH4)2SO4andsodium nitroprusside
  127. reagent for protein test
    HAc + NaCl
  128. reagent for bile acid test
    sulfur powder
  129. normal urine + benedict's reagent
    blue with white ppt
  130. pathological urine + benedict's reagent
    green w/ yellow to brown ppt
  131. normal urine + (NH4)2SO4+ Na nitroprusside
    yellow solution
  132. pathological urine + (NH4)2SO4+ Na nitroprusside
    red-purple ring (+)
  133. normal urine + HAc + NaCl =
    bubble formation
  134. pathological urine + HAc + NaCl =
    white gel precipitate
  135. presence of blood in urine
    hematuria

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