Evaluation of an individual using observations, tests, and other procedures that result in the identification of behaviors or other criteria to determine the presence or absence of a disorder. (may determine placement for special services for intervention)
Refers to the importance of being alert to etiologic factors that may be perpetuating factors.
Refers to the important role of evaluating strengths and weaknesses so deficits can be addressed with specific goals.
What are the main objectives of Assessment?
DetermineExistence of problem
Goals of intervention
An approach mindset, or overall philosophy assumed in one's approach to assessment would be referred to as ___________.
What model of assessment plan identifies symptoms including characteristic performance patterns on tests?
What model of assessment plan identifies strengths and how they might be used to remediate deficits?
What model of assessment plan uses patterns in test results to confirm or refute hypotheses about underlying causes?
In assessment, what are the specific test instruments and clinical procedures used to collect the evidence?
What are some examples of assessment procedure tools?
Assessment that is performed to determine the existence of a disorder.
What specific assessment tools are used to determine the existence of a disorder?
Assessment performed to determine the progress of goals.
What specific assessment tools are used to determine the progress of goals?
What are 2 important requirements of an observer?
Basic understanding and discernment of behavior
Ability to relate observations to a conceptual framework
Observer that makes first-hand observations to assemble and interpret in contribution to the evidence.
Observer who provides information, anecdotes, et. to the SLP as evidence is collected and may include teachers and doctors.
Context or setting for evaluating language can vary in 2 ways--what are those variables?
Contexts should be as representative of the child's _______________ as possible.
Observation locations may not be as easily controlled as the presence of ____________.
Which assessment tool is most structured and all materials, stimuli, & instructions are carefully controlled to maintain uniform procedures to minimize variations in administrations and results?
What's the rationale of using standardized testing?
Ensures differences are between children themselves NOT the administration
What's the primary purpose of standardized testing?
Identify existence of a disorder
Which assessment tool is midway structured where behaviors are evoked in structured tasks for in-depth testing of specific behaviors?
What's the rationale of baserating?
In-depth measurement of skills or areas of suspected need
What's the primary purpose of baserating?
Determine the Goals of treatment
Which assessment tool is the least structured and uses natural conversation interactions?
What is the rationale of language sampling?
Strong Face Validity
What's the primary purpose of language sampling?
Determine Goals of Treatment
What are 2 factors that can affect the amount and type of communication behavior that is observed?
Context and Structure
The value of observations is based on the ability to relate them to a relevant _______ or ________.
Categorization or classification scheme for observed characteristics or behaviors based on some ordered system.
What type of taxonomic classification scheme exists due to someone else's prior efforts such as Brown's 14 Grammatical Morphemes?
What type of taxonomic classification scheme that emerges as observations are organized?
Taxonomies of ________ follow characteristics of adult language and can be organized in terms of either comprehension or production (Receptive or Expressive language) & language sample and baserating may be organized accordingly.
What are traditional measures of common categorical schemes?
Most standardized tests primarily examine the _________ of the taxonomies of content.
Production of content is most often measured through determining the variety of meanings produced in __________________.
Expressive Language Samples
Taxonomies of ____ are almost exclusively based on "low structure" observations of social behavior of natural interactions and very few standardized test attempt to classify this category of observation.
Speech Acts, Communicative Functions, & Discourse Skills are some common categorical schemes of __________ of ____.
Taxonomies of Use
Frequency, Proportions, Ratios, Weights, & Normative Scores are all ways that ________ & ________ observations are accomplished.
_______________ are meaningful contexts in which to interpret the evidence.
Frames of Reference
Frame of reference that compares an individual's performance to the performances of a representative sample of his/her peers.
Norm-References frames of reference my be reported in terms of:
What is the primary purpose of norm-referenced frames of reference?
Determine Existence of a Disorder
Norm-referencing is most useful in _______ and least useful in __________.
Frame of reference that compares the performance of one child to a predetermined standard of performance.
Criterion-Referenced frames of reference by be reported in terms of:
Percentages of Correct responses
Number of Occurences
What is the primary purpose of criterion-referencing?
Determine Goals for Intervention
Mastery of specific skills information
Criterion-referencing is most helpful in __________ & assessing ____________ during intervention.
What frame of refernce describes general communication behaviors and classifies those behaviors that are relevant to an individual's overall communication system (observations can be gathered during any of the 3 levels of structured situations).
In Communication-Referencing, there are NO _________ or ________ that can be used for comparison or quantification.
What are the variables that are typically controlled in standardized testing?
In standardization, the entire group of individuals who exhibit a trait or characteristic of interest.
In standardization, a subgroup of individuals chosen to be representative of the population of interest.
What variables related to "representativeness" of individuals are included in samples?
Number of individuals
The Normative Sample ________ the population.
As more individuals are included in a sample, the mean becomes increasingly _________.
A bell-shaped curve representing the theoretical distribution of an infinitely large number of scores in a population with deviation occuring only by chance.
Normal (Distribution) Curve
The likelihood for observations or values to cluster around some value.
Measure of central tendency that's the arithmetic average of a set of scores; the sum of the scores is divided by the number of scores in the set.
Measure of central tendency score that divides the top 50% from the bottom 50% in a distribution of scores.
Measure of central tendency that is the most frequently occurring score or value in a distribution of scores.
A theoretical curve derived mathematically to represent the nomal (random) distribution of a trait, value, or score.
Tendencies for values to vary, disperse, or scatter around or away from the average value.
Dispersion or Variablility
A weak measure of dispersion/variablility that is the difference between the highest and lowest scores and doesn't reveal anything about the distribution of the scores.
A strong measure for expressing the amount of dispersion/variablility in a set of scores with reference to the mean.
The mean and standard deviation for a set of values are __________ that mark how much of the distribution is clustered near the mean or scattered away from the mean.
Smaller SDs indicate more scores are clustered _________ around the mean.
Larger SDs indicate more scores are dispersed _________ from the mean.
The words "typical, average, or expected" or "absence of abnormalities or deficiencies" are associated with defining _________.
Statistical parameters using standard deviations to define how far away from the mean/average an observation/score can fall and still be considered normal.
Statistical Definition of Normal
Statistical definition of normal based on the set of values that fall between 1 SD above and 1 SD below the mean.
Narrow View of Normal
According to the narrow view of normal, disordered scores are those that fall what percent below or 1 SD below the mean?
Statistical definition of normal based on the set of values that fall between 2 SD above and 2 SD below the mean.
Broad View of Normal
According to the broad view of normal, disordered scores are those that fall what percent below or 2 SD below the mean?
Original, unconverted score obtained on a test (number of items, credits, or points obtained on items administered); meaningless until referenced to norms for the test.
Normalized score obtained by comparing the raw score to the normative sample distribution score.
Normalized score expressed in its equivalent form on another standardized scale.
General term referring to transformed/normalized scores used to compare individual's performance to that of his peers (same population); based on mean and SD in the standardized sample.
What specific scores are considered Standard Scores?
Scaled scores (based on indiv. mean/SD)
Standard score which has a mean=100 and SD=15.
Deviation Quotient/Standard Score Equivalent
Standard score which has a mean=50 and SD=10.
Standard score which has a mean=0 and SD=1.
Standard score which represents the normal distribution with nine bands or ranges; has a mean=5 (scores w/in the 5th band) and SD=2 (bands).
Scores expressed using arbitrary value ranges representing a standard score distribution with a set mean and SD.
Scores expressed as a point in the distribution of scores below which the given percent of scores fall (not a standard score--isn't based on mean/SD). Some align with important points in the normal distribution.
What are important percentile ranks to remember?
16% below 1 SD=Disordered
3% below 2 SD=Disordered
Derived score expressed as the chronological age or grade placement of that group for whom an obtained score was typical; based only on the means obtained by each of the peer groups included in the standardized sample.
Equivalent Score (Age/Grade)
It's difficult to make judgments regarding normalcy using equivalent scores because there my be considerable ________ in the distributions of adjacent age/grade levels because info. on the _________ is not considered.
Greater discrepancy between ____________ and ___________, the greater the confidence that a disorder exists.
Age Equivalent Score
_________ scores are most useful for helping parents understand the discrepancy between their child's age/grade abilities.
Hypothetical score that most accurately represents the subject's actual level of ability in the skill being measured.
Actual obtained scorederived from the subject's performance on a given measure.
The measure of variablility evident in test scores over re-administrations of a test instruments to subgroups of the standardized sample. Smaller=less variablilty / Larger=greater variability (Equivalent to SD).
Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)
Statistically derived range of probable scores in which the hypothetical true score for a subject might be expected to fall; based on variability evidenced by standardized sample. (Observed score + 1 SEM - 1 SEM)
Confidence Interval (Band)
Extent to which an instrument measures what it claims to measure.
Extent to which items in a test represent the theoretical construct being measured and requires expert analysis for comparison.
Extent to which an expert determines items in a test represent the skill being measured.
Extent a layperson recognizes the relationship between test items and the skill being measured.
Extent to which the instrument performsaccording to some established criterion. (2 types: Concurrent & Predictive)
Type of criterion validity comparing performances to those on currently established instruments.
Concurrent Criterion Validity
Type of criterion validity predicting future performance from the measure obtained by the instrument.
Predictive Criterion Validity
Extent to which results obtained by an instrument with a given subject are similar or consistent.
Extent to which similar scores are obtained with the same subject on subsequent administrations by the same examiner.
Extent to which similar scores are obtained with the same subject on subsequent administrations by different examiners.
Extent to which similar scores are obtained with the same subject on different forms of same test.
Equivalence of Forms/Split-Half reliability
Highest set of items that satisfies the specified sequence of successful items.
Basal item is the _______ item in the basal sequence.
Lowest set of items that satisfies the specified sequence of unsuccessful items.
Ceiling item is the ______ item in the ceiling sequence.
Unsuccessful/error items that occur between the basal and ceiling item.
Basal-Ceiling administration procedure requires that test items be arranged ________.
Hierarchically (least-most difficult)
Basal-Ceiling administration procedure is intended to only ________ the skill of interest.
Sample (less than complete info is obtained)
Advantage of Basal-Ceiling administration procedure is that items administered can be reduced in number in turn reducing _______ and ______.
What are 4 basic considerations when preparing for test administration procedures?
What should be considered when interpreting test scores?
What must be considered when test results in a low score?