SGU Histology test 2

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AshleyF
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SGU Histology test 2
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2010-02-19 17:51:53
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SGU Histology
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  1. Life span of erythrocites for dog, cat, cow, pig, horse & sheep.
    • Dog 120 days
    • Cat 75 days
    • Cow 160 days
    • Pig 85 days
    • Horse & Sheep 150 days
  2. Types of Leucocytes:
    • Polymorphonuclear granulcytes (w/o granules)
    • -Neutrophils (bacteria)
    • -Eosinophils (Allergic/Anaphilatic/Parasite)
    • -Bosphilic (Inflamation)
    • Mononuclear agranulocytes (w/ granules)
    • -Lymphocytes
    • -Monocytes (cell signaling/ precursor of Macrophage)
  3. What are the 3 types of Lmphocytes and what is their function?
    • B-lymphocytes, prodcue antibodies & memory cells (10%)
    • T-lymphocytes, cell mediated immunity & memory cells (75%)
    • Natural Killer cells (NK cell), None specific role, Protect against tumor cells (10 - 15%)
  4. Hematopoisis
    Blood cell formation (bone marrow)
  5. Types of bone marrow
    • Red marrow (active)
    • Yellow (inactive + contains fat)
  6. Types of immunocytes
    • -Lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells, NKcells)
    • -Neutrophils
    • -Macrophage
  7. Types of stromal cells
    • -Reticular cells
    • -Epithelial reticular cells
    • -Dendritic cells
  8. list the primary (central) lyph organs and their function
    • -Embryonic yolk sac
    • -Thymus
    • -GALT (payers patches)
    • -Cloacal Bursa (birds)
    • -Bone marrow

    Produce lympocyte precursers
  9. list the secondary (peripheral) lymphoid organs and their function
    • -Lymph nodes
    • -Spleen
    • -MALT (Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue)

    House mature immunocytes, acts as site of immune response
  10. describe the lymph nodes
    • -filter lymph
    • -afferent and efferent vessels (most other afferent only)
    • -surrounded by a capsule of dense irregular CT
  11. sinuses of lymph nodes
    • -subscapular sinus
    • -Trabecular sinus
    • -medullary sinus
  12. MALT, GALT, BALT, RALT
    • MALT: mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
    • GALT: gut associated lymphoid tissue
    • BALT: bronchial associated lymphoid tissue
    • RALT: respitory associated lymphoid tissue
  13. name/describe the developement periods.
    • -Prenatal: before birth, rapid/drastic changes
    • -Postnatal: after birth, gradual changes & aging
  14. Explain the 3 parts of the Prenatal Period
    • -Pre-embryonic period (developement of gametes, implantation)
    • -Embryonic period (implantation, primordia of organs, formation of body form)
    • -Fetal Period (growth and maturation of organ stystem)
  15. Embryo
    developing offspring during embryonic period
  16. Fetus
    developing offspring dyring the fetal period
  17. Teratology
    the branch of embryology concerned with malformations
  18. Theory of recapitulation
    Ontogeney repeats Phylogeney
  19. Pre-formation theory
    egg (or sperm) contains and individual in minature form
  20. Epigenetic theory
    developement occurs through progressive growth and differentaition through a series of casual interaction between various parts
  21. Mitosis
    results in 2 daughter cells
  22. Meiosis
    4 daughter cells, each contain 1/2 parents chromosomes
  23. Gametogenesis
    process of production of gametes
  24. Spermatogenesis
    Developement of sperm (Spermatocytogenesis, spermiogenesis)
  25. what happens during spermiogenesis?
    • 1) chromatin forms head
    • 2) golgicomplex forms acrosomal cap
    • 3) centriole encircles flagellum
    • 4) mitichondria forms midsection
  26. Capacitation
    removal of glycoprotein coat and seminal plasma protein from the membranes of the acrosomal region.
  27. Acrosomal reaction
    release of enzymes that penterate oocyte barriers
  28. types of twinning
    - monozygous. divides at blastocyst stage (2 identical)

    -dizygous. 2 seperate ova are fertilized
  29. Superfecundation
    impreganation though 2 ovum liberated at the same time (cats/dogs)
  30. Superfetation
    pregnant female ovulates, concieves and produces a second younger fetus
  31. Gestation period for mare, cow, ewe, sow, bitch, queen
    • Mare: 335-345 days
    • Cow: 279-282 days
    • Ewe: 148-150 days
    • Sow: 114-120 days
    • Bitch: 60-65 days
    • Queen: 60 days
  32. Gastrulation
    Formation of germ layers from embryonic discs
  33. 3 Germ layers
    Ectoderm-outermost

    Mesoderm-middle

    Endoderm-innermost
  34. 3 layers of the heart wall
    Endocardium- inner

    Myocardium- middle

    Epicardium- outermost
  35. describe the endocardium
    Lines atria and ventricles.

    • -endothelium
    • -innersubendothelium
    • -outersubendothelium
  36. describe the myocardium
    Thickest layer.

    • -bundles of cardiac muscle cells
    • -SA and AV nodes
    • -Purkinje fibers
    • -Cardiac skeleton
  37. describe the epicardium
    loose connective tissue containig blood vessels, nerves, ganglia, and adipose tissue

    -lined by simple squamos (visceral pericardium)
  38. 3 parts of the cardiac skeleton
    • -fibrous rings
    • -fibrous triangle
    • -fibrous part of the interventricular septum
  39. types of blood vessels
    • -arteries
    • -veins
    • -capillaries
    • -microvasculature
  40. genreal structure of blood vessels
    tunica intima- internal elastic membrane- tunica media- external elastic membrane- tunica externa
  41. types of capillaries
    • -continuous
    • -fenestrated
    • -sniusoidal
    • -porous
  42. where are continuous capillaries found
    muscle
  43. where are fenestrated capillaries found
    GI tract
  44. where are sinusoidal capillaries found
    endocrine gland
  45. where are porous capillaries found
    Kidney glomerulus
  46. what is special about sinusoidal cappilaries and sinusoids
    they can change shape for maximum exchange
  47. types of venules
    • -post capillary venules
    • -pericytic (or collecting) venules
    • -muscular venules

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