Chemistry ch 17
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Chemistry ch 17
chapter 17, Liquids
as the temp of a solid increases, so does the
velocity of the particles
the point at which particles slip out of their organized pattern and the solid becomes a liquid
the point at which the particles of the liquid move so slowly that they move back into an organized pattern
When does MP = FP?
at the same pressure
at some temperature, liquid particles move so fast that they escape the surface to form
the state in which 2 opposing processes occur at an equal rate
requires a closed system
particles are constantly moving from or returning to liquid
when a liquid is in equilibrium qith the vapor above it
the higher the temperature, the higher the
Le Chatelier's Principle
when a system in equilibrium os subjected to a change (stress), the system will react to relieve the stress
change in temperature
the pressure generated by a vapor that is in equilibrium with a liquid
substances with low vapor pressures have what kind of intermolecular forces?
strong- hold particles tightly
substances with high vapor pressures have what kind of intermolecular forces?
weak- hold particles weakly
melting point of gas
the temp at which the vp of the solid and the vp of the liquid are equal
solids that vaporize quickly in air without going through the liquid phase
dry ice, moth balls
when heated, vp and ke
what happens when the vp and ke of a liquid increase?
the molecules get pushed further apart, bubbles of vapor form and move to the surface
when the vp in a system is equal to the standard atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa)
difference between evaporation and boiling
evaporation is at the surface, boiling is throughout
liquid boils at low temp and evaporates quickly at room temp
boil at high temp and evaporate slowly
what kind of vp's do volatile liquids have?
condensing substances that are normally gases at room temp to liquids- involves temp and pressure
temp above which no amount of pressure will result in the liquification of a gas
the pressure that will cause a gas to liquefy at Tc
Low Tc indicates
weak forces between molecules
high Tc indicates
strong forces between molecules
shows the relationship between pressure, temp, and physical state
the temp and pressure at which all 3 phases are at equilibrium
when energy is added to a solid, the temp increases until
Tm is reached
the temp of a melting solid doesn't change until
all of the solid is completely melted
the energy added to melt it is needed to change
the positions of the particles
Enthalpy of fusion
energy required to melt 1 gram of a specific substance at its Tm
^Hfus of ice
Enthalpy of vaporization
energy required to vaporize 1 gram at its Tb
^Hvap of water
melting and boiling points for molecules can predicted with a knowledge of
the atomic and molecular structure
when the molecules contain H and it's covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atoms, it forms
a highly polar molecule
Hydrogen bonding forms an
extremely strong type of dipole
Hydrogen strongly bonds with... and forms
N, O, and F
water has what kind of density
most- 3.98 deg C
what breaks the hydrogen bonds?
what do the clusters of hydrogen bonds make?
crystalline structure with many open spaces
what is surface tension caused by?
unbalanced forces on the surface particles of a liquid
is surface tension high or low for water?
is surface tension high or low for mecury?