Test 4

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Test 4
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2009-11-12 21:49:06
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  1. Kingdom Animalia
    • multicellular eukaryotes
    • most have tissues, organs, and organ systems
    • aerobic and heterotrophic
    • most are sexual reproducers
    • have life cycles with different stages of development (embryo/larvae/nymph/adult)
    • motile (have ability to move)
  2. Invertibrates
    • 97% of animals
    • Classification by body plans:
    • 1. body symmetry
    • 2. cephalization
    • 3. type of gut/digestive system
    • 4. segmentation
    • 5. coelum
  3. Radial Symmetry
    • Central axis radiates like spokes on a wheel
    • Sense food or danger from all directions
    • Equal halves at any point
    • Starfish, Jellyfish, Coral
  4. Bilateral Symmetry
    • Left and right sides are mirror images
    • Have an anterior and posterior
    • Have a dorsal (backbone side)and a ventral (belly side)
  5. Asymmetrical
    • No symmetry
    • Ex) sponges
  6. Cephalization
    • Presence of a head
    • Only in bilateral symmetry
    • Simple (has ganglia)
    • Complex (has systems)
    • Sensory organs are at one point on the anterior
  7. Type of Gut
    • Digestive system
    • Incomplete: has 1 opening
    • Complete: has 2 openings (entrance/exit)
  8. Segmentation
    • Subunits
    • Repeating, fused
    • Each have one specific function
  9. Coelum
    • Body cavity
    • Fluid-filled cavity protects and surrounds organs
  10. Acoelomate
    No body cavity, compressed tissues
  11. Pseudocoelomate
    • False cavity
    • Organs not completely protected
  12. Coelomate
    Has a true coelum
  13. Phylum Porifera
    • Sponges
    • Asymmetrical
    • No tissues or organs
    • Aggregations of cell types that work together
    • Giant opening at the top called oscula
    • Collar cells line pores and have flagella
    • Moves H2O continuously
    • Filter feeders
    • Amoeba-type cells go through phagocytosis and share nutrients by diffusion
    • No digestive system
    • Sexual: larvae are free swimming
    • Asexual: budding
    • Structure: spicules (made of silica and calcium carbonate)
    • Protien makes them slimy (we harvest the slimy ones)
  14. Phylum Cnidaria
    • Jellyfish, coral, hydras, sea anemones
    • Radial symmetry
    • Have tentacles, aquatic, filter feeders
    • Have nematocysts (stinging device on a long thread, barb on the end covered with toxin or sticky stuff). For capturing prey.
    • Polyps or medusa
    • Larvae can swim
    • Asexual: budding
    • Have nerve net, incomplete digestive system
    • Coral secretes CaCO3 shells
  15. Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms (planarians, flukes, tapeworms)
    • Acoelomates, but with organ systems
    • Bilateral
    • Have ganglia
    • Branched nervous, digestive, and reproductive system
    • True hermaphrodites, self-fertilize
    • Also asexual - split in half
    • Flukes have different beginning, middle, and end hosts
  16. Tapeworms
    • Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms
    • Have head called scolex
    • Barbed mouth
    • Sections caled proglottids
    • Can grow up to 20 feet long
  17. Phylum Nematoda
    • Roundworms
    • 500,000 species
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Pseudocoelomates
    • Tapered at both ends
    • Have a cuticle
    • Have nervous system and ganglia
    • Complete digestive system
    • Lack a circulatory/respiratory system - rely on diffusion of gases across the skin
    • Seperate sexes, most lay eggs
    • Sexual reproduction
  18. Trichinella
    • Roundworm
    • Encysts in muscle tissues, comes from undercooked meat
  19. Hookworms
    • Roundworms
    • Infect everything - people, cats dogs, ect
    • Get in blodstream
  20. Pinworms
    • Roundworms
    • Spread by kids
  21. Heartworms
    • Roundworms
    • Infect dogs and cats
    • Carried by mosquitos
  22. Elephantitis
    • Roundworm
    • Infects humans
    • Carried by mosquitos
    • Settle in the lymph nodes and cause swelling
  23. Guinea worm
    • Roundworm
    • South africa - infects humans
    • Found in water fleas from contaminated drinking water
    • Go into bloodstream
  24. Phylum Annelida
    • Segmented worms
    • Earthworms, leeches
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Coelomates
    • Have a cuticle
    • Have setae (bristles) to help them crawl
    • Have a nervous system and ganglia
    • Can be aquatic and terrestrial
    • Complete digestive system
    • Have a nerve ring and ciulatory system repeated in each segment
    • Both sexual and asexual. Some are hermaphrodites and some can split
  25. Earthworms
    • Phylum Annelida
    • Used for fish bait
    • Add nutrients to the soil
  26. Leeches
    • Phylum Annelida
    • Bloodsuckers
    • Secrete anticoagulant and a numbing agent
    • Used medically for reattachments and skin grafts
  27. Phylum Arthropoda
    • Arthropods ("jointed appendages")
    • Crustaceans (crawfish), ticks, spiders
    • Most abundant of all animals
    • Most diverse
    • Have exoskeleton
    • Each appendage is specialized for specific functions (mandibles for feeding, antenna for sensing, legs and wings for locomotion)
  28. Phylum Echinodermata
    • Spiny skin
    • Starfish, sea stars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers
    • Internal CaCo3 plates with bumps (like a skeleton). Skin stretched over bumps makes it look like spines
    • Larvae are bilateral but adults are radial and lose brains, but can regenerate body parts
    • Complete digestive system. Some evert stomachs to digest food
    • Have water vascular system and tube feet
  29. Phylum Chordata
    • Includes vertebrates
    • Notochord - stiffened support rod of tissue
    • Dorsal hollow nerve chord (spine)
    • Gill slits and post-anal tail at some stage of development
    • 3 Sub-Phylums:
    • Tunicates and Lancelets - marine filter feeders, baglike body ex) sea squirts
    • Vertebrates
  30. Key Evolutionary Adaptations of Vertebrates
    • Notochord becomes vertebrae
    • Internal skeleton paired with muscles
    • Anterior end of vertebrae modify to form jaws
    • Better sensory organs = better reactions
    • Fins evolved into legs, wings, ect
    • Better respiratory system
  31. 7 Classes of Vertebrata
    • Class Agnatha
    • Class Condrichthyes
    • Class Osteichthyes
    • Class Amphibia
    • Class Reptilia
    • Class Aves
    • Class Mammalia
  32. Class Agnatha
    • Vertebrata
    • Jawless fishes
    • Mouth is round like a grinding wheel
    • Eel-like body, made of cartilage
    • Lamprey eel in Great Lakes
  33. Class Condrichthyes
    • Vertebrata
    • Cartilaginous fishes
    • Sharks, rays, and skates
    • Skeletons made of cartilage
    • Huge jaws with teeth made of calcified cartilage
    • Streamlined predators
    • Small scales make them feel like they have rough skin
    • 2 chambered heart
  34. Class Osteichthyes
    • Bony fish
    • Largest group of vertibrates
    • Have bony skeleton
    • 3 groups:
    • Ray-fin fishes
    • Lobe-fin fishes
    • Lung fishes
  35. Ray-Fin Fishes
    • Vertebrata - Class Osteichthyes
    • Fins arise from the dermal layer and have spines in them
    • Highly maneuverable
    • Goldfish, Seahorses, ect
  36. Lobe-Fin Fishes
    • Vertebrata - Class Osteichthyes
    • Fleshy, lobed fins
    • Internal skeleton
    • Ceolacanthe is the only livng species, and was believed to be extinct for 80 million years
  37. Lung Fishes
    • Vertebrata - Class Osteichthyes
    • Have gills and a set of lungs
    • Have to use their lungs
    • Have ability to survive out of water
  38. Class Amphibia
    • Frogs, toads, salamanders
    • Limited to water because they need it for respiration and reproduction
    • Evolved from either lobe-fin or lung fishes
  39. Class Reptilia
    • Vertebrata
    • Free from water
    • Internal fertilization, waterproof eggs, thick, scaly skin, water conserving kidneys
    • Ectotherm
    • Most have 3-chambered heart
    • Crocodiles have 4-chambered heart and are most closely related to birds
  40. Class Aves
    • Vertebrata
    • Evolved from reptiles, feathers evolved from scales
    • Endotherms
    • Keel = breastbone where flight muscles attach
    • Extremely efficient circulatory system, lots of mitochondria in their muscles
    • Lay eggs
    • Beak and feet used for identification
    • Raptors, gallinaceous, neotropial, waterfowl
  41. Feathers
    • Evolved from scales
    • Lightweight and contoured
    • Allow a bird to trap body heat
    • Used for species and sex identification
    • Allow flight
    • Have breeding and winter plumage
  42. Class Mammalia
    • Hair or fur
    • Mammary glands
    • Well developed cerebral cortex
    • Better parental care
    • Endotherm
    • Most give live birth
  43. Monotreme
    • Mammals that lay eggs
    • Spiny anteater, platypus
  44. Marsupials
    • Mammals that carry their young in pouches
    • Kangaroo, wallaby, opossum
  45. Placental
    • Mammals that have the young stay in the uterus longer
    • Develop more fully
    • Fed by placenta
  46. Arthropod
    • Has respiratory structures, so more oxygen can get in the body
    • Terrestrial: have trachea (tubes through the exoskeleton that let oxygen in)
    • Aquatic: have gills
    • Have open circulatory system: blood and heart, but no blood vessels so blood is bathing the organs
    • Comoplex sensory organs (antenna, compound eyes with wide-angle vision)
    • Division of labor: reduce competition amongst themselves (metamorphosis)
  47. Classes of Arthropods
    • Arachnidia
    • Crustacea
    • Insecta
  48. Class Arachnidia
    • Arthropods
    • 8 walking legs, 2 fused segments
    • Carnivores, most have liquid diets
    • Some are poisonous
    • Some carry diseases
    • Eat other insects
  49. Class Crustacea
    • Arthropods
    • "Crusty exoskeleton"
    • Crabs, crawfish, shrimp
    • Mostly aquatic
    • Can have 2-20 body segments, 10 walking legs
    • Vary in size from microscopic water fleas to 12 foot Japanese crab
    • 70,000 different named species
    • Good for food (krill=tiny shrimp, eaten by whales)
  50. Class Insecta
    • Arthropods
    • Over 1 million
    • Aquatic or terrestrial
    • 3 body segments: head, thorax, and abdomen
    • Thorax has 6 legs and 4 wings
    • Carry diseases, destroy crops
    • Necessary for pollination
    • Food source
  51. Radical Metamorphosis
    Caterpillar > Butterfly
  52. Gradual Metamorphosis
    Multiple nymph stages before adult
  53. Phylum Molluska
    • Clams, snails, octopus
    • Means soft body: no skeleton
    • Most have shell for protection
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Some have a reduced coelum: doesn't go through the whole body
    • Mantle (drape of flesh that covers the body)
    • Muscular foot
    • Classes: Gastropoda, Peleyecopoda, Cephalopoda
  54. Class Gastropoda
    • Phylum Molluska
    • Snails, slugs
    • "belly foot" - muscular foot used to crawl
    • Most have a shell (except slugs)
    • Aquatic or terrestrial, but all are moist
    • Radula: ribbon-like tounge with spikes
  55. Class Peleyecopoda
    • Phylum Molluska
    • Bivalves
    • 2 hinged shells: clams, oysters, scallops
    • Use foot to bury themselves
    • Mantle forms 2 halves
    • All filter feeders
  56. Class Cephalopoda
    • Phylum Molluska
    • "Head foot"
    • Well developed brain capable of memory and communication
    • Octopus, squid, chambered nautilus, cuttlefish
    • Mantle is modified into tentacles with suction cups
    • Shell is reduced so they rely on speed and intelligence
    • Use mantle for jet propulsion
    • Closed circulatory system

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