MA 201 Body Structure

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MA 201 Body Structure
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2011-03-20 23:49:25
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  1. Anatomy
    • Study of the physical structure of the body and its organs
    • Describes framework and physical characteristics
  2. Gross Anatomy
    Seen with naked eye (inspection, disection)
  3. Microscopic Anatomy
    Seen with microscopes
  4. Physiology
    • Study of the function of the body, cell tissues, and organs
    • Interrelationships of functioning structures of the body
    • Explains how everything works together to support life
  5. Cytology
    Study of cell life and formations
  6. Histology
    Study of microscopic structure of tissue
  7. Patho
    Study of disease and response to disease
  8. Reference To Body
    Patients view - Anotomical Position
  9. Cell
    • Basic building block
    • Requires nutrients and O2 to survive
    • Specific functions
    • Produces heat and energy
    • Gives off waste
  10. Cell Functions
    • Secrete materials (mucus)
    • Recieve and transmit impulses
    • Enable us to move
    • Carry nutrients and O2
    • Clot blood
    • Destroy bacteria
  11. Cytoplasm
    Cell fluid
  12. Cell Membrane
    • Separates cell from environment
    • Consists of protiens and fat molecules
    • Controls what enters / leaves cell
    • Regulates cellular function
  13. Organelles
    • Minute bodies within the Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosomes
    • Centriole
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes
  14. Nucleus
    • Control center of the cell
    • Surrounded by own nuclear membrane
    • Controls mitosis (cell division)
  15. Nucleus Characteristics
    • Contains chromosomes (rod shaped) Deoxyribonecleic Acid (DNA)
    • Humans have 23 pairs
    • Stores hereditary material from one gen to next
    • 23 pair = sex xx-girl, xy-boy
  16. Zygote
    • First cell division after egg and sperm unite
    • new chomosome order made (you are you)
  17. DNA
    • Carries all of genetic info necessary for cell functions
    • Composed of sugar, phosphate, adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine
  18. Genes
    Units of instruction, produce / influence characteristics or traits and capabilities of an organism
  19. Meiosis
    Each parent chromosome halved, shuffled, and then combined during fertilization (unique combonation)
  20. Mitosis
    • Division of cells controlled by nucleus of the cell
    • Purpose to provide exact duplication of cells for growth and repair of the body
  21. Pinocytic Vesicles
    • Pocket in cell membrane, permit large molecules (protien/fat) to enter
    • Pocket closes forming vacule (bubble) in cytoplasm called endocytosis
  22. Phagocytosis
    Cell eating
  23. Pinocytosis
    If water trapped in pocket instead of protien/fat - Cell Drinking
  24. Exocytosis
    • Reverse of drinking/eating
    • From cytoplasm to out of cell (waste)
  25. 6 Cell Membrane Processes
    • 1. Diffusion - gas, liquid, solid distributed evenly
    • 2. Osmosis - fluids through selective permeable membrane, some can, some can't
    • 3. Filtration - move across semipermeable membrane cause of force such as gravity or blood pressure
    • 4. Avtive Transport - molecules moving low to high caused by presense of ATP (carries molecules in and out of cell)
    • 5. Phagocytosis - cell eating - pocket in membrane (protien)
    • 6. Pinocytosis - cell drinking - pocket in membrane (water)
  26. Diffusion Process
    • Solutes - medium fluid, molecules solid
    • Move from high to low concentration
    • Body cells higher waste trade for lower O2 = internal respiration
  27. Osmosis Process
    • When fluids equal on both sides of membrane = Equillibrium
    • Equilibrium known as Osmotic Pressure
  28. Isotonic
    Solution same as blood
  29. Normal Saline
    0.9% salt
  30. Hypotonic
    Water will enter blood cell and cell will burst
  31. Hypertonic
    Water will exit blood cell and cell will shrivel
  32. Neurons
    • Nerve cell tissue
    • Don't increase after birth
    • Some can't be regenerated if damaged
  33. Mutation
    During DNA replication - lost, rearanged, or paired in error sequences caused by internal / external factors
  34. Trait
    Recognizeable result from effect of a gene or group of genes
  35. 3 Types Genes
    • 1. Dominant - Can produce trait without pair member
    • 2. Recessive - takes both pairs to create trate
    • 3. X-Linked - defective gene carried on "x-chromosome" (which parent has defect, is child male / female)
  36. Osseous
    Skeletal / Bone
  37. System
    2 or more organs of body that perform similar functions
  38. Organ
    2 or more types of tissue working together for body function
  39. Tissues
    Cells of same type group together to form common purpose
  40. 4 Types Tissues
    • 1. Epithelial - glands, cover surface of body, line cavities
    • 2. Connective - organs and body parts
    • 3. Nerve - body's communication network
    • 4. Muscle - designed to contract on stimulation
  41. Connective Tissue
    • 1. Connective proper - fat tissue, reserve of fuel (food)
    • 2. Supportive - subcutaneous layer under skin
    • 3. Dense Supportive - tendons, ligaments, organ capsules
  42. 3 Nerve Type Tissues
    • 1. Sensory Neuron - skin or sense organs
    • 2. Inter / Connecting Neuron - carries impulses to another neuron
    • 3. Motor Neuron - receives impulses / sends message, cause reaction
  43. 2 Types Muscle Tissue
    • Voluntary - controlled at will with the brain
    • Skeletal / Striated - connected to bones (ability to move)
    • Involuntary - without control or conscious awareness
    • Smooth - within walls of organs
    • Cardiac - only in the heart
  44. Body Systems
    • 1. Nervous
    • 2. The Senses
    • 3. Integumentary
    • 4. Skeletal
    • 5. Muscular
    • 6. Respiratory
    • 7. Circulatory
    • 8. Immune
    • 9. Digestive
    • 10. Urinary
    • 11. Endocrine
    • 12. Reproductive
  45. Life Structure
    • 1. Cell
    • 2. Tissue
    • 3. Organ
    • 4. System
    • 5. Body
  46. Midsagittal
    • Verticle line down middle of body (even sides)
    • Anything toward midline is called Medial
    • Anything away from midline is called Lateral
  47. Extremities
    • Arms and legs to the trunk of the body
    • Proximal - nearest to point of attachment
    • Distal - Further away from point of attachment
  48. Frontal / Coronal Plane
    Draw line vertically through side of body from head to toe
  49. Frontal / Coronal Plane
    Front Side
    Anterior / Ventral
  50. Frontal / Coronal Plane
    Back Side
    Posterior / Dorsal
  51. Transverse
    Horizontal line Cross Section through body (doesn't have to be even)
  52. Transverse
    Above Line
    • Superior / Cranial
    • Cephalic
  53. Transverse
    Below Line
    Inferior / Caudal
  54. 2 Main Body Cavities
    • 1. Anterior / Ventral (Front)
    • 2. Posterior / Dorsal (Rear)
  55. Main Body Cavity
    Anterior / Ventral (Front)
    Contains
    • Thorasic Cavity
    • Abdominal Cavity
    • Pelvic Cavity
  56. Main Body Cavity
    Posterior / Dorsal (Rear)
    Contains
    • Cranial Cavity
    • Spine Cavity
  57. Abdomen Cavity Organs
    • Stomach, Small intestine, Most large intestine
    • Liver, Spleen, Pencrease, Gallbladder
  58. Thorasic Cavity Organs
    • Heart, Lungs
    • Great Blood Vessels
  59. Pelvic Cavity Organs
    • Urinary Bladder, Last part Large Intestines
    • Internal Reproductive Organs
  60. Peritoneal Membrane
    Lines the abdoment cavity
  61. Retroperitoneal
    • Behind the peritonium
    • Kidneys located in this area in front of spine
  62. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    Used to describe the digestive system being found in both cavities
  63. Three Other Small Cavities
    • Orbital
    • Nasal
    • Buccal
  64. Abdomen Divided Into 4
    • Right and Left Upper Quadrent
    • Right and Left Lower Quadrant
    • RUQ/ LUQ
    • RLQ / LLQ
  65. Abdomen Divided Into Regions
    • Rt Hypochondriac
    • Epigastric
    • Lt Hypochondriac

    • Rt Lumbar / Lateral
    • Umbilical
    • Lt Lumbar / Lateral

    • Rt Iliac / Inguinal
    • Hypogastric / Pubic
    • Lt Iliac / Inguinal
  66. Hypochondriac
    Below cartilage (ribs)
  67. Epigastric
    Over / above stomach
  68. Lumbar
    Loin / Side region / lateral
  69. Umbilical
    Around the umbilicus / Belly Button
  70. Iliac
    Ilium portion of pelvic bone / Inguinal / Groin
  71. Hypogastric
    • Below stomach
    • Known as pubic
  72. Cardiology
    Study of heart disease and disfunction
  73. Electrocardiogram
    • Instrument used by cardiologyst
    • Traces impulses of heart on paper to create perm. record
    • Electrodes placed on patient
    • Wires connect to electrodes, send signals to amplifier
    • transformed into mechanical motion by Galvanometer
    • Stylus produces printed info
  74. 6 EKG Measurements
    • 1. Measurement
    • 2. Rate
    • 3. Rhythm
    • 4. Duration
    • 5. Intervals
    • 6. Segments
  75. SA Node
    • Self Pacemaker
    • Begin of heart cycle
    • Contract Atria (P-Wave)
  76. AV Node
    • Slight pause
    • Allows ventricles to fill
    • Q-Wave
  77. Bundle of His
    • Bifurcates to Lt and Rt Bundle Branches
    • R-Wave
  78. Purkinje Fibers
    • Ventricular contraction
    • Blood discharge
    • S-Wave
  79. Electrical Impulse Path
    • 1. SA Node - first impulse (P-Wave)
    • 2. AV Node - out to Bundle of His, Bundle Branch, then Purkinje Fibers - cause ventricles to contract (QRS-Wave)
    • 3. Repolarization - time of recovery of ventricles (T-Wave)
  80. Routine EKG
    • 12 Leads (10 electrodes) or recordings
    • First 3 (standard / bipolar) - Labeled I, II, III
    • 6 Chest / Precordial leads
  81. EKG Interference
    • 1. Patient muscle movement (somatic)
    • 2. AC - electrical activity

    • 3. Lead 1 = RA to LA
    • 4. Lead 2 = RA to LL
    • 5. Lead 3 = LL to LA
  82. Standardization
    Necessary to enable physician to judge deviations from the standard
  83. EKG Characteristics
    • 1. Trace paper speed 25mm per second
    • 2. Simultaneous 12-lead interpretive analysis
    • 3. Ages 35-40 should make baseline reading, every 5-10 yrs after
  84. Stress Test
    Done while on treadmill or bike to assess heart's ability to work under stress
  85. Holter Monitor
    • Will reveal any cardiac arrhthmias, chest pain, effectiveness of meds, and patient symptoms
    • Ambulatory (walking)
    • Keep diary
    • Note any pain or discomfort
    • Press "event button" for any cardiac symptoms
    • Sponge bath - not shower or tub
  86. Vital Capacity Test
    • Greatest volume of air that can be expelled during complete, slow, unforced expiration (nose clip useed)
    • Spirometer - used to measure
    • Ht, wt, and vitals should be taken during visit
    • Watch for signs of stress, dizziness, coughing
  87. Sonograms
    • Obtained by ultrasonic scanning (ultrsonography)
    • Use reflections / echoes directed into tissues
    • Conducted through transducer (hand held)
  88. Echocardiography
    • Echoes to examine the heart
    • Viewed on Oscilloscope
  89. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Noninvasive procedures
    • Becomes invasive when intravenous contrast media introduced
    • Don't even wear mascara
  90. Roentgen Rays
    • X-Rays
    • High energy electromagnetic radiation produced by the collision of electrons with a metal target in x-ray tube
  91. Bone Studies
    • Do not require preparation
    • Tumors, fractures, disorders, diseases, chest x-rays
  92. Theraputic Radiation
    Used in treatment of cancer
  93. Chest X-Ray Positions
    • 1. Postereoanterior (PA) - from posterior to anterior (face wall)
    • 2. Anteroposterior (AP) - from anterior to posterior (face x-ray)
    • 3. Lateral (Lat) - arms over head, shoulder to wall
    • 4. Left Posterior Oblique (LPO) - left elbow up, left hand on neck, 45deg back to wall, left side closest to wall
  94. Upper GI Series (Barium Swallow)
    • Must drink contrast medium during exam, radiologist observes flow directly with fluoroscope
    • Observes esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine
  95. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)
    Enema with air contrast and barium will distend the colon to make structures more visible
  96. Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
    • IV of iodine - contrast medium to define urinary system
    • Must verify no allergies to iodine
  97. Retrograde Pyelogram
    • Study urinary tract by inserting sterile catheter into meatus, through bladder and up into kidneys
    • Radiopaque flows up into kidneys
  98. Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder (KUB)
    • X-Ray of abdomen - Flat Plate of Abdomen
    • Disease and Disorders
    • Used to find position of IUD
  99. Mammography
    • Aids in detection of breast cancer
    • Omit caffeine
    • Compression of breast requires less radiation
  100. Radiolucent
    See through (lungs) - Transparent
  101. Radiopaque
    • Solid (bone)
    • Take medium to make solid for viewing
  102. Body Scans
    • Computer Transaxial Tomography (CAT, CT)
    • Single tissue planes slices 1cm thick
  103. CAT Scan Sagittal
    Slices from head to toe
  104. CAT Scan Transverse
    Slices across body
  105. CAT Scan Coronal
    Slices from front to back
  106. 3 Sections of Ear
    • 1. Outer Ear
    • 2. Middle Ear
    • 3. Inner Ear
  107. Outer Ear
    • 1. Auricle (pinna)
    • 2. External auditory cannal
    • 3. Tympanic membrane
  108. Middle Ear
    • Ossicles (smallest bones in body)
    • 1. Malleus (hammer)
    • 2. Incus (anvil)
    • 3. Stapes (stirrup)
  109. Eustachian Tube
    • Connects Middle Ear to Throat (Pharynx)
    • Helps equalize pressure in ear
  110. Inner Ear
    • Cochlea - snail shell shape
    • Sound travels through to nerve for brain to interpret
    • Semicircular canals (tubes in 3 planes to give balance)
    • Tiny stones rub against nerve endings
  111. Tympanic Membrane
    Separates outer ear from inner ear
  112. Otic
    Pretaining to Ear
  113. Otoscope
    Used to inspect outer ear
  114. Ear Disease / Dissorder
    • Otitis External - outer ear infection
    • Otitis Media - middle ear infection
  115. 3 Semicercular Canals
    • 1. Superior Semicircular Canal
    • 2. Posterior Semicircular Canal
    • 3. Lateral Semicircular Canal
  116. Irrigate Ear
    • 1. Solution between 100-105deg
    • 2. View affected ear with otoscope
    • 3. Hand against head, grasp auricle (top of ear)
    • 4. Pull up and back (adults), down and back (child)
    • 5. Turn head and back with basin under ear
    • 6. Aim flow up and to side (not straight into ear drum)
    • 7. Tilt head to side to drain
    • 8. Inspect / repeat if necessary
  117. Instill Ear Medication
    • 1. Warm meds - usually kept in fridge
    • 2. Dropper may not touch ear
    • 3. Ointment should apply to cotton tip
    • 4. Starighten ear (as washing) and apply meds
    • 5. Remain in tilt position to allow meds to settle
  118. Optic
    Pertaining to the eye
  119. Sclara
    • White part of the eye
    • Protects eye
  120. Iris
    • Color part of eye
    • Controls pupil
    • No Black Eyes
  121. Pupil
    Opening of the Iris
  122. Cornea
    Clear covering of Iris and Pupil
  123. The Lens
    Behind the pupil
  124. Retina
    • Back of eye
    • Receives light
    • Contains Rods (B&W)
    • Contains Cones (color)
  125. Aqueous Humor
    • Front part of eye,
    • Flows around Iris
  126. Vitreous Humor
    • Thick liquid between Iris and back of eye
    • Gives eye shape
  127. Ophthalmoscope
    Instrument used to inspect eye behind lens and iris
  128. Conjunctivitis
    • Infection of conjunctiva of the eye (pink eye)
    • Extremely contagious
  129. Irrigate Eye
    • 1. Tilt head back and to side infected
    • 2. Emisis basin agains cheek / head
    • 3. Wipe eye with gauze from inner to outer canthus
    • 4. Hold eye open
    • 5. Slowly release solution over the eye gently and steadily
    • 6. Record type solution, eye, results, etc
  130. Instilling Eye Medication
    • 1. Bring meds to room temp
    • 2. Patient up straight, head tilt back
    • 3. Use gauze to touch skin under eye / pull down
    • 4. Dropper 1/4" above eye
    • 5. Patient look up
    • 6. Drop meds in eye pocket
    • 7. Ointment inside lower eye lid without touching
    • 8. Patient blink to move meds around
  131. Snellen Chart
    • Used to test for distance vision
    • 20ft away / how far it should be to read
  132. Jaeger Test
    • Used to test for near vision acuity
    • Sit up straight
    • Card held 14-16" away
  133. Myopia
    • Can't see far away
    • Nearsightedness
  134. Presbyopia
    • Can't see up close
    • Farsightedness

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