Psy Ch8.txt

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Psy Ch8.txt
2011-03-21 02:58:00

Human Development
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  1. Development
    Pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout life, involving both growth and decline
  2. Development involves multiple aspects and processes:
    • Physical - biological nature, maturation
    • Cognitive - thought, intelligence, language
    • Socioemotional - relationships, emotions, personality
  3. Nature - biological inheritance, genes
    • Genotype - genetic material
    • Phenotype - observable characteristics
  4. Nurture
    environmental and social experiences
  5. Experiences can alter the expression of genes
    Phenotypes are altered based on experience as in phenylketonuria (PKU)
  6. Studying Development
    • Longitudinal - recall from chapter 1
    • Same participants at multiple points in time
    • Cross-sectional - multiple participants in various age groups at the same point in time
    • Twin studies
    • Cohort effect - differences between individuals that may be due to historical or social experiences rather than just age
  7. Prenatal Development
    • From conception to birth
    • Germinal period - weeks 1 & 2
    • Cell division, attachment to uterine wall
    • Embryonic period - weeks 3 - 8
    • Develop organs, spinal cord, heart beat
    • Fetal period - months 2 - 9
    • Organ function increases, fetus grows
  8. Infant Perception
    • Studied in two main ways:
    • Preferential looking - give an infant two objects to look at and check for a gaze preference
    • =If the infant consistently gazes at one of the objects over the other we know they can distinguish them
    • Habituation - repeatedly present an infant with the same object and wait for them to stop responding to it
    • =If you present a different object and the infant doesn't respond then they can't tell the two objects apart
  9. Piaget
    • Sensorimotor - Object Permanence
    • Preoperational - Lack of conservation; Egocentrism
    • Concrete-Operational - Conservation
    • Formal-Operational - Deductive reasoning
  10. Socioemotional Development
    Temperament - individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
  11. Chess & Thomas:
    • Easy - generally in a positive mood, establishes regular routines, adapts to new experiences
    • Difficult - react negatively, cry often, irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experiences
    • Slow-to-warm-up - low activity level, somewhat negative and inflexible, displays low intensity moods
  12. Alternate theory on temperament:
    • Multiple dimensions that are continuous:
    • Effortful control or self-regulation - controlling arousal, not being easily agitated
    • Inhibition - being shy, showing distress in unfamiliar situations
    • Negative affectivity - tending to be frustrated or sad
    • Socioemotional Development
  13. Attachment - close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver
    • Harlow's monkeys
    • Ainsworth's Strange Situation
  14. Parenting Styles
    • Authoritarian: restrictive, punitive style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parent's directions and to value hard work and effort
    • Authoritative: A parenting style that encourages the child to be independent but that still places limits and controls on behavior
    • Neglectful: A parenting style characterized by a lack of parental involvement in the child's life
    • Permissive: A parenting style characterized by the placement of few limits on the child's behavior
  15. Raising Moral Children
    • Being warm and supportive rather than overly punishing and rigid
    • When disciplining, using reasoning the child can understand
    • Providing opportunities for the child to learn about others' perspectives and feelings
    • Involving children in family decision making and in thinking about moral decisions
    • Modeling moral behaviors and thinking, and providing children with opportunities to engage in such behaviors and thought
  16. Gender
    • Sex is the biological organ assignment of male of female
    • Gender is the social and psychological aspects of being male or female
    • Gender roles - reflect the individual's expectations for how males or females should think, act, and feel
  17. Adolescence
    • Puberty - a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence
    • =Begins around age 9 in girls and 11 in boys
    • =Peaks around age 11 ? in girls and 13 ? in boys
  18. Adulthood
    • Early adult - 20s & 30s
    • Emerging adult - transitional period from adolescent to adulthood, spanning approximately 18 to 25 years of age
    • =Identity exploration
    • =Instability
    • =Self-focus
    • =Feeling -in between-
    • =Age of possibilities
    • Middle adult - 40s & 50s
    • Late adult - 60 and beyond
    • =Life expectancy in US: 80.4 for women, 75.2 for men
  19. Cognition in Adulthood
    Crystallized intelligence - accumulated information and verbal skills
  20. Fluid intelligence - ability to reason abstractly
    • =One study found crystallized higher in middle adult and fluid higher in early adult
    • =A different study found different aspects of the intelligences peak at different ages in middle adulthood
  21. Wisdom - expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life
    =Generally attributed to life experience