9th Grade Biology Benchmark
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(1)What are three differences between DNA and RNA based on structure, sugar, and location in a cell?
DNA is a double helix while RNA is single stranded, DNA is deoxyribose suugar while RNA is ribose, DNA is located in the nucleus while RNA is located in the ribosomes or throughout the cell.
(2)Which bases pair for RNA?
adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine
(3)Which bases pair for DNA?
adenine-thymine and guanie-cytosine
(4)Describe a DNA nucleotide.
contains a phosphate group, a nitrogen base, and a sugar(deoxyribose)
(5)During DNA replication, a section of DNA with bases TTAGCG would pair with DNA bases _______?
(6)What occurs during transcription? Where does it occur?
enzymes make and RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand, it occurs in the nucleus
(7)What happens during translation? Where does it occur?
translation is the process of converting the infromation in a sequence of nitrogen bases in mRNA into a sequnce of amino acids that make up a protein, it occurs in the ribosomes
(8)What is a mutation?
any change in the DNA sequence that also changes the protein it codes
(8)How is a chromosome mutation different from a gene mutation?
A chromosome mutation is a change in a chromosome while a gene mutation is a change in the gene itself
(9)What are the building blocks of a protein called?
(9)Where in a cell are proteins made?
(10)Who is credited for discovering the shape of the DNA model?
James Watson and Francis Crick
(11)How are both male and female chromosome represented by letters?
(12)What is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous alleles?
- homozygous-two alike alleles(AA or aa)
- heterozygous-two different alleles(Aa)
(13)What is the definition of genetics?
a branch of biology that studies heredity
(13)What is the definition of heredity?
passing of characteristics from parent to offspring
(14)Who is Gregor Mendel? What did her discover in pea plants?
- known as the father of genetics
- that you could predict inheritance of traits
(15)What is the difference between phenotype and genotype?
- Phenotype-physical appearance
- Genotype-chemical makeup
(16)What is a sex-linked trait?
a trait controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes
(17)What is a pedigree and how is it used?
- a graphic representation of genetic inheritance
- used by geneticists to map genetic traits
(20)How are fossils layered in rocks?
oldest at the bottom and newest on top
(21)What are five areas that demonstrate evidence of evolution?
fossil records, geographic distribution, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, molecular biology/biochemistry
(22)Compare divergent and convergent evolution.
- Divergent-two alike species become more and more different
- Convergent-two different species become more and more alike
(23)Define natural selection.
the organisms best suited for their environment survive to reproduce and pass on their traits
(24)What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
A hypothesis can be tested and proven while a theory can only be supported by evidence
(25)How do mimicry and camouflage help organisms survive?
Mimicry helps because it allows an organism to look like a different organism to help it to not be killed, be pollinated, etc. Camouflage helps organisms to hide from predators.
(26)What is taxonomy?
The science that specializes in the classification of organisms
(27)What is Linneaus credited with doing?
developing binomial nomenclature
(28)What is binomial nomenclature?
a two-part naming system for classifying and naming organisms
(29)How do you write a scientific name?
underlined or italicized
(30)Which kingdoms have cells with a nucleus and which ones do not?
- Eukaryotes-have a nucleus
- Prokaryotes-do not have a nucleus
(31)What are the two bacterial kingdoms?
Archeabatceria and Eubacteria
(32)List the levels of classification from largest to smallest?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
(33)How are organisms classified?
according to their structural similarities
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