Microbio Chp 23-27
Card Set Information
Microbio Chp 23-27
Bacterial/Viral skin and nervous system
what are the 2 Gram (+) cocci?
staphlococci and micrococci
what are the 2 gram (+) pleomorphic rods?
propionbacterium acnes and cornyebacterium xerosis
what does lipophilic mean?
takes sebum and breaks it down to an acid that blocks the duct on the skin
what is yeast?
what element causes a decrease in yeast growth?
what are the 4 diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus?
folliculitis, scalded skin syndrome, wound infections, impetigo
what oxygen level does S. aureus need?
what is the apperance of S. aureus on agar?
round, raised, yellow color
what is another name for a boil?
what is folliculitis?
small red bump or pimple
what is a carbuncle from a hair follicle infection?
large area of redness, swelling, and pain with several pustule sites
where can hair follicle infection systemically spread to?
heart, bones, brain
hair follicle infections can spread to what layer of skin that causes what?
subcutaneous layer and leads to an abcess
how are hair follicle infections transmitted?
usually by hands
what are S. aureus strains resistant to?
how do you prevent/treat hair follicle infections?
anti-staphylococcal creams and soaps that decrease the carrier state
how do you treat furuncles and carbuncles?
what is the main symptom of staphylococcal wound infections?
pyogenic - causes production of pus
what are the 2 causative agents of S. wound infections?
S. aureus and S. epidermis
what is the pathogenesis of S. wound infections?
coagulase, alpha toxin, protein A
what is the superantigen of S. wound infections called?
how are the S. wound infections spread?
who are at risk for getting S. wound infections? 3 of them
elderly, immunosuppressed, prolonged post hospital stays
the vancomycin resistant strain for S. wound infections was identified when?
what are 2 symptoms of scalded skin syndrome?
dehydration and large blisters filled with clear fluid
what is the pathogenesis of scalded skin syndrome?
exfoliation toxin that causes a split in the cellular layer of the epidermis
scalded skin syndrome normally affects who?
newborns and elderly
how is scalded skin syndrome transmitted?
person to person
how do you prevent scalded skin syndrome?
isolation to reduce risk of secondary infections
how do you treat scalded skin syndrome?
getting rid of the dead skin
what are the 2 disesases caused by strepococcus pyogenes?
impetigo and necrotizing fascitis
what does streptococcus pyogenes secrete?
what color does beta hemolytic streptococci give around the colony?
what color does alpha hemolytic streptococci give around the colony?
what is alpha hemolytic?
incomplete destruction of RBCs
what is beta hemolytic?
complete destruction of RBCs
what is gamma hemolytic?
no hemolysis of RBCs
what is the Lancefield system based on?
cell wall carbohydrates
what is a classic sign of impetigo?
blisters that break and weep found mostly around the mouth with a golden formation of crust
what is the pathogenesis of impetigo?
enters though minor breaks and M protein the intereferes with phagocytosis
what is the epidemiology of impetigo?
direct contact, insects, fomites
what are the symptoms of flesh eaters?
swelling, confusion, blood leakage
what is the pathogenesis of flesh eaters?
fibronectin binding protein that produces a toxin that gets into the blood stream
what is the epidemiology of flesh eaters?
direct contact, nose and throat discharge, people with underlying conditions like diabetes, cancer, drugs
what is the treatment for flesh eaters?
surgery to remove dead skin and maybe amputation
what does pyocyanin do in pseudomonas aerguinosa?
turns tissue green
what is a symptom of clostridial myonecrosis?
bloody or brownish fluid and gas leaks from wound, mottled black
what is the pathogenesis of gas gangrene?
grows in poorly oxygenated tissue that releases an alpha toxin
what is the epidemiology of gas gangrene?
wounds from war, high risk populations
how do you treat gas gangrene?
what are the signs of chicken pox?
pustules, itchy, blisters, latent infections leads to shingles
what is the causative agent of chicken pox?
varcella which a a double stranded DNA
how does chicken pox enter the body?
through respiratory route then to the blood then skin
T/F humans are the only reservoir of the varicella virus
what kind of vaccine is used for varicella and what is the name of it?
attenuated (live) and zovarix
how old can children be to get the chicken pox virus?
what is the sign of rubeola?
what are koplik spots?
white patchy dots on infected areas of the mouth associated with rubeola
how does measles enter the body?
what are the signs of rubella?
rash build-up on skin, enlarged lymph nodes
how does rubella enter the body?
respiratory route and multiplies in the nasopharynx
how is rubella and rubeola transmitted?
human to human contact
what is tinea capitis?
ringworm of the scalp
who does tinea capitis affect the most?
elementary children the most
what is tinea cruris?
ringworm of the groin
what is tinea cruris associated with?
what is tinea pedis?
ringworm of the feet
what is tinea pedis associated with?
what is the pathogenesis of the fungal diseases of the skin?
excessice mositure allows invasion of the keratinized layers of the tissue
what do dermatophytes produce?
what are the 5 leading causes of meningitis?
group B streptococcus,
who does haemophilus influenzae meningitis affect?
children between 6 months to 4 years
where is haemophilus influenzae found?
normal flora in the throat
what kind of capsule does haemophilus influenzae have?
antigen type B
where does neisseria meningtidis begin?
throat infection and then a rash
what is the most common type of neisseria meningitis?
what is a sign of meninococcal meningitis?
petechia- ruptured capillary beds on skin that appear as tiny dots on the surface
T/F bacterial is better than viral when it comes to meningins
what causes virulence in streptococcus agalactiae?
who does streptococcus agalactiae affect?
how does newborns get streptococcus agalactiae?
the bacteria colonizes in the vagina then baby passes through the gential tract
T/F can listeriosis be transmitted to the fetus?
where is listeriosis usually found?
food normally kept around 4
C (fridge temp)
how long is the incubation period for listerosis?
a few days to 2-3 months
what is hansens disease also known as?
what are the symptoms of leprosy?
skin lesions, deformed face, loss of fingers or toes
how long is the incubation period for hansens disease?
3 months to 20 years
what is the pathogenesis of leprosy?
invasion of small nerves of skin that produces nerve damage
what is the epidemiology of leprosy?
what is the main symptom of botulism?
what is the pathogenesis of botulism?
endospores germinate in food and releases a neurotoxin
how do you get botulism?
home-canning or food not heated enough
what is the main sign of tetanus?
painful uncontrollable muscle spasms that beings in the jaw muscle
what is tetanus resulted from?
tetanospasmin- an exotoxin produced by the bacterium
how do you get tetanus?
dirty or puncture wounds
what are the causative agents of viral meningitis?
small, non-enveloped RNA enteroviruses
how are the enteroviruses in viral meningitis transmitted?
viral meningitis is also assiocated with?
what are the symptoms of virl meningitis?
disorientation, seizures, localized paralysis, coma
what id the causative agent of viral menigitis?
arboviruses- viruses transmitted by insects, mites, or ticks
T/F there is no accepted treatment for arboviral encephalitis
what is the main sign of polio?
shrinking of muscles and bones not developing fully
what is the characteristic sign of rabies?
tingling or twitching sensation of site of viral entry along with muscle spasms of mouth and throat
what does the rabies virus look like?
how do you get rabies?
bite of a rabid animal or inhalation
is there effective treatment for rabies once symptoms begin?