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What is an antigen?
- any substance that can bind to an antigen receptor
- *** better if that binding creates an immune response
What are the four antigens (THIM)?
- 1) Tolerogen
- 2) Hapten
- 3) Immunogen
- 4) Mitogen
What is an immunogen?
An antigen that binds a receptor and causes and immune response
What is a hapten?
An antigen that binds a receptor but does not cause an immune response
Can Haptens ever be activated?
Yes, if they bind to a larger molecule (like an immunogen)
What are two common haptens and how are they activated?
- 1) Penicillin: binds to RBC
- 2) Poison Oak/Ivy: Binds to langerhan cell and presents to T-helper cell
What is a Tolerogen?
An antigen that binds a receptor and illicits an immune response
What is the difference b/t an immunogen and a tolerogen?
- Immunogen: re-exposure increases response
- Tolerogen: re-exposure diminishes response (it begins to be TOLERATED)
What are Mitogens?
They can help T and B-cells differentiate and clone
Name two Mitogensand their functions?
- 1) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Activate B-cells/macrophage cytokine production
- 2) Superantigens: Activate T-cells, non-specifically
What do Antigens receptors recognize on antigens to promote binding?
Antigen determinants (or epitopes)
What is a Multivalent epitope?
Antigen with "M"ultiple copies of the same epitope
What is a Polyvalent epitope?
Antigen with various different copies of epitopes
What is a Polyclonal response?
When various antigen receptors bind to a Polyvalent Epitope and illicit different immune responses
Which are more immunogenic, complex or small antigens and why?
Complex because of more number and more types of epitopes
When binding to antigens, what is the difference b/t B-cells and T-cells?
T-cells only bind to MHC antigens while B-cells bind to a variety of antigens
What are adjuvants?
molecules that enhance the immunogenicity of an antigen and do it non-specifically
What is the only legal adjuvant we use in the US?
Where are BCR and TCR expressed?
- BCR = B-cells
- TCR = T-cells
What antigen receptors are present in the innate immune system?
What is the most abundant PRR in the innate immune system?
TLR (Toll-like receptor)
What conformation of epitope do B-cells and T-cells bind to?
- B-cells: conformational and linear
- T-cells: linear
Name four reasons why people illicit different immune responses?
- 1) State of antigen
- 2) Genetics
- 3) biological manipulation of patient
- 4) hole in immune system