digestive system vocab terms

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digestive system vocab terms
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2010-02-19 20:43:13
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digestive system vocab terms
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terms digestive system
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  1. absorption
    passage of materials throught the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
  2. amino acids
    building blocks of proteins, produced when proteins are digested
  3. amylase
    enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
  4. anus
    opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
  5. appendix
    blind pouch hanging from the cecum (RLQ). it literally means hanging (pend/o) on (ap-)
  6. bile
    digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. it breaks up large fat globules.
  7. bilirubin
    pigment released by the liver in bile
  8. bowel
    intestine
  9. canine teeth
    pointed, 'dog tooth' like teeth, next to the incisors. also called cuspids or eyeteeth
  10. cecum
    first part of the large intestine
  11. colon
    large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon, and the rectum
  12. common bile duct
    carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus
  13. defecation
    elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
  14. deglutition
    swallowing
  15. dentin
    major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
  16. digestion
    breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
  17. duodenum
    first part of the small intestine. 12 inches long
  18. elimination
    act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials
  19. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
  20. enamel
    hard outermost layer of a tooth
  21. enzyme
    a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. digestive enzymes breakdown complex foods to simpler substances. enzymes are given names that end in -ase
  22. esophagus
    tube connecting the throat to the stomach. eso- means inward, phag/o means swallowing
  23. fatty acids
    substances produced when fats are digested
  24. feces
    solid wastes, stools
  25. gallbladder
    small sac under the liver; stores bile
  26. glucose
    simple sugar
  27. glycogen
    starch; glucose is stored int he form of glycogen in liver cells
  28. hydrochloric acid
    substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
  29. ileum
    third part of the small intestine
  30. incisor
    one of four front teeth in the dental arch
  31. insulin
    hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
  32. jejunum
    second part of the small intestine
  33. lipase
    pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
  34. liver
    large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. the liver secreates bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. the normal adult liver weighs about 2 1/2 - 3 lbs
  35. lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
    ring of muscles between the espohagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter
  36. mastication
    chewing
  37. molar teeth
    the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. premolar teeth are fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars
  38. palate
    roof of the mouth. the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jaw bone. the soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat
  39. pancreas
    organ under the stomach. produces insulin and enzymes
  40. papillae
    small elevations on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple like elevation
  41. parotid gland
    salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
  42. peristalsis
    rhythmic contraction of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.
  43. pharynx
    throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose.
  44. portal vein
    large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
  45. protease
    enzyme that digests protein
  46. pyloric sphincter
    ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum.
  47. pylorus
    distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
  48. rectum
    last section of the large intestine,. connecting the end of the colon and the anus
  49. rugae
    ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
  50. saliva
    digestive juice produced by salivary glands
  51. salivary glands
    parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
  52. sigmoid colon
    fourth and last s-shaped segment of the colon, (just before the rectum) empties into the rectum
  53. sphincter
    circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
  54. stomach
    muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. the stomachs parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle), and antrum (distal).
  55. triglycerides
    large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
  56. uvula
    soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate.
  57. villi
    microscopic projections in the wall of the small inestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
  58. chyme
    semi fluid mass of partially digested food
  59. jaundice
    • (icterus)
    • yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
  60. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  61. borborygmus
    rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or bot5h in the gastrointestinal tract
  62. eructation
    gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
  63. hematochezia
    passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
  64. melena
    black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
  65. steatorrhea
    fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter

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