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strategy that seeks to identify the underlying problems within a community so that community and police can work together to solve them.
solicited bribes (police corruption)
handed corrupt money and take it and say nothing. This is the biggest problem because there were way more of them.
a new approach to policing that is characterized by a lowering of tolerance to crime and deviance and the use of punitive measures to achieve this goal. eliminating discretion among line officers (NYC in 1990s)
Patrol officers assigned to specific activities, such as patrolling a high-crime area, chosen after an analysis of crime patterns. crime mapping. Computer states focusing in area where crimes are.
U.S vs. Leon – police must show they believed the person giving the information and that it was true.
good faith exception
need to show immediate need to seize evidence (blood in DUI).
eliminated the fleeing felon rule
Tennessee vs. Garner (1985)
Lawful vantage point; inadvertently see item, clearly illegal
(detectives)- complaints against the police (in&out).
outside entity to police the police.
James Q. Wilson’s 3 styles of policing- Varieties of Police Behavior
- watchman (order maintenance)
ignore minor infractions; informal dispute resolution
watchman (order maintenence)
professional; traffic tickets/arrests to protect against corruption
Suburban middle-class; police respond to community needs
state official hands evidence to federal official and federal official can use it in court.
exclusionary rule/silver platter doctrine
police coercing someone into committing a crime.
sought input from community and created SARA model. (Scanning, Analysis, Response & Assesment). They ID and address community problems.
Cleaveland, OH case involving search of boarding home with fake warrant. All state courts in the country must apply the exclusionary rule as a matter of constitutional law.
Mapp vs. Ohio (1961)
taking reports by phone, prioritizing calls, etc. -- Call stacking
provide opportuinity for person to commit a crime
new Chief Justice; Due Process Revolution in the USSC
facts/circumstances that would lead reasonable person to believe crime was committed and certain person committed it.
started community policing, flattening the hierarchy
President's commission (1967)
Created by President T. Roosevelt, designed to address anti-trust cases (monopolies).
necessary for stop & frisk.
additional evidence coming from illegal search excluded.
Fruits of the Poisonous Tree
process by which American courts have applied portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights to the states
helped create Berkely School of Criminology; wrote Police Administration (1950)
basis for mandatory arrest
Thurman vs. Torrington
Different standards of proof
- resonable suspicion
- probable cause
- preponderance of evidence
- beyond resonable doubt
started with Berkley PD in 1905, continued until 1932. Emphasized professionalism, hired college students, used scientific methods
Search warrant requirement:
- 4th amendment requires warrant based on probable cause.
- Need to articulate place to be search, items to be seized.
- Warrant searches are rarely challenged out in court—Good fath.
Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment (1873-74)
- Control districts: same amount of patrol cars as normal.
- Proactive: 3 to 4x as many patrol cars as normal
- Reactive- no cars unless a call. When it came car went in & came out.
- *Found there was no difference in crime.
tells what the police can do.
tells what the police can't do. Passed in 1791 but didnt affect procedure for over 100 years.
Bill of Rights
has reduced personal liberties.
dramatically reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States
introduced in the early 1970s in New York City. The approach emphasized the delivery of round the-clock decentralized patrol services by a team of officers, usually under the direction of a sergeant or lieutenant, in a specific geographic area.
started in NYC in 1979. volunteers who provide public safety and education in our neighborhood streets our schools and cyberspace
must have a search warrant.
thermal imaging searches
more flexible; controlled by CEO. Collection of departmental directives governing the performance of duties.
standard operating procedure (SOP)
usually have their own station houses in which some officers from different specialized function units may also be housed.
territory covered by a police officer on patrol; derived from hunters, “beating” the bushes for game.
according to the 14th amendment, a fundamental mandate that a person should not be deprived of life, liberty, or property without reasonable and lawful procedures.
the United States National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, under the direction of former Attorney General George W. Wickersham was given a mandate to investigate the criminal justice system.
Wickersham Commission (1929)
strategy that relies on public confidence and citizen cooperation to help prevent crime and make the residents of a community feel more secure.
group of private citizens taking the law into their own hands by tracking down criminals and punishing them.
explicit questioning or actions that may elicit an incriminating statement.
effect of police work on an officer’s outlook on the world. Danger and authority are important factors.
"working personality" of police
largest federal police agency.
exceptions to search warrant requirement:
- Hot pursuit
- Plain view
- Stop and frisk
- Exigent circumstances
- Incident to an arrest