Anatomy blk4 week 2

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sgustafson
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74272
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Anatomy blk4 week 2
Updated:
2011-03-21 23:43:01
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upper extremity
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anatomy week 2
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  1. When does the upper limb bud form? How do fingers form?
    4th week; apoptosis
  2. Intramembranous v. endochondral ossifcation
    bones of the face v. long bones
  3. How does muscle mesenchyme migrate into the upper limb?
    • paraxial mesoderm -> somite -> hypomere organized into dorsal and ventral mass around developing bones
    • innervated by ventral rami
  4. How does the orientation of the upper limb buds change during the 7th wk?
    upper limb buds rotate laterally on longitudinal axis
  5. What are the joints of the shoulder?
    • Acromioclavicular (AC)
    • Sternoclavicular (SC)
    • Glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint)
    • scapulothoracic (not a true synovial joint)
  6. What are the joints of the hands, proximal to distal?
    • wrist joint
    • intercarpal joints
    • carpalmetacarpal
    • metacarpalphalangeal
    • (proximal, distal) interphalangeal
    • thumb doesn't have prox and distal
  7. Deep fascia of neck is continuous w/what 2 fascia of upper extremity?
    • clavipectoral fascia (chest wall)
    • axillary fascia (axilla)
  8. What are the compartments of the forearm?
    • anterior compartment - superficial, intermediate, deep layers
    • posterior compartment - superficial and deep layers
  9. Describe deep fascia of the wrist
    thickens to form a flexor retinaculum & extensor retinaculum
  10. Describe deep fascia of the hand
    • thenar compartment - thumb
    • central compartment
    • hypothenar compartment - pinky
  11. Branches of 1st part of subclavian artery
    • Vertebral artery: thru C6 to basilar artery
    • Thyrocervical trunk: inf. thyroid, transverse cervical, suprascapular, internal thoracic artery
    • Costocervical trunk: small branches in deep neck
  12. Describe the course of the subclavian artery
    • 3 parts: 1st medial to, 2nd beneath, and 3rd lateral to anterior scalene
    • Becomes axillary artery deep to the clavicle at the 1st rib
    • Becomes brachial artery at lower border of teres major muscle
  13. Branches of the axillary artery
    • First part (medial to pectoralis minor): highest thoracic artery
    • Second part: thoracoacromial, lateral thoracic
    • Third part: subscapular artery (thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular branches), anterior humeral circumflex, posterior humeral circumflex
  14. Branches of brachial artery
    • Profunda brachii (deep) artery
    • Radial and ulnar arteries supply forearm and hand
  15. Ulnar artery branches
    • Common interosseous artery -> anterior and posterior, supply deep muscles
    • Superfcial palmar arch
  16. Superficial veins of dorsum of hand
    • Cephalic vein on thumb side -> axillary vein
    • Basilic vein on little finger side -> brachial vein -> axillary vein
  17. Name the cervical spinal nerves that innervate upper extremity muscles
    • Dorsal scapular nerve (C5): rhomboids, levator scapulae
    • Long thoracic nerve (C5-7): serratus anterior
  18. What is the brachial plexus/where is it?
    • C5-T1 nerve roots
    • between anterior scalene and middle scalene, enter the posterior triangle
    • Somatic motor, somatic sensory, sympathetic postganglionic, visceral sensory
  19. brachial plexus roots
    • Superior: C5 and C6, gives off terminal branches: nerve to subclavius and suprascapular nerve (supraspinatus, infraspinatus muscles)
    • Middle: C7
    • Inferior: C8-T1
  20. Brachial plexus cords
    • named for relationship w/ axillary artery
    • lateral cord (C5-C7): anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks
    • medial cord (C8-T1): anterior division of inferior trunk
    • posterior cord (C5-T1): posterior divisions of 3 trunks
  21. lateral cord termial branches
    • lateral pectoral nerve
    • musculocutaneus nerve
    • lateral root of median nerve
  22. medial cord terminal branches
    • medial pectoral nerve
    • medial brachial cutaneous nerve
    • medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve
    • ulnar nerve
    • medial root of the median nerve
  23. posterior cord terminal branches
    • upper subscapular nerve
    • lower subscapular nerve
    • thoracodorsal nerve
    • axillary nerve
    • radial nerve
  24. Pain/sensation change for radiculopathy C5-T1
    • C5 - point of shoulder
    • C6 - thumb
    • C7 - middle finger
    • C8 - little finger
    • T1 - medial forearm
  25. Movement deficity for radiculopathy C5-T1
    • C5 - shoulder abduction
    • C6 - elbow flexion, wrist extension
    • C7- elbow extension
    • C8/T1 - intrinsic hand muscles
  26. How is the spinal accessory nerve formed?
    • C1-5 ventral rami form the spinal part, which goes thru jugular foramen
    • Cranial fibers exit to the posterior triangle to innervate SCM and trapezius
  27. What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle?
    • SCM, trapezius, middle third of clavicle
    • the floor is formed by prevertebral fascia (deep to this are scalene muscles and the cervical sympathetic chain)
    • the roof is formed by investing fascia that lines superficial fascia and skin
  28. Contents of the posterior triangle
    • subclavian artery and vein
    • transverse cervical artery
    • suprascapular artery and vein
    • spinal accessory nerve
    • dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
    • long thoracic nerve (C5-7)
    • brachial plexus roots (C5-T1) and trunks
  29. what muscles does the median nerve innervate?
    • pronator teres
    • pronator quadratus
  30. what muscles does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?
    • biceps brachii
    • brachialis
  31. what muscles does that radial nerve innervate?
    • aconeus
    • triceps brachii
    • supinator muscle
  32. nerves that innervate muscles that move the elbow joint v. the radioulnar joint
    C6-7, C6-8 nerve roots

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