What part of the vertebrate nervous system innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular tissues and governs involuntary, vital functions?
autonomic nervous system
If we follow a nerve impulse from the CNS to an effector within the SNS, how many motor nerurons would be involved?
If we follow a nerve impulse from the CNS to an effector within the ANS, how many motor neurons would be involved?
A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between the CNS and a ganglion is what type of neuron?
A motor neuron within the ANS that lies between a ganglion and an effector is what type of neuron?
What is the axon of a ganglionic neuron within the ANS?
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
parasympathetic & sympathetic
What division of the ANS is primarily concerned with conserving energy and replenishing nutrient stores and has been nicknames the "rest-and-digest" division?
What division of the ANS is primarily concerned with preparing the body for emergencies and is often referred to as the "fight-or-flight" division?
What is another term for the parasympathetic division?
Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic division located?
brainstem & gray regions of S2-S4
Where are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division found?
next to or within the organs they innervate
What cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibers?
oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal & vagus
What specific regions of the spinal cord house the cell bodies of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
lateral gray regions of S2-S4
What nerves carry fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS through the pelvis?
pelvic splanchnic nerves
What does "splanchnic" mean?
You miss lunch and only have time for a bag of chips. What division of the ANS brings about an increase in the production of saliva as you eat?
You walk from a relateively dim building into the brightness of a sunny winter's day.Your pupils constrict. What division of the ANS brings about this constriction?
A test in the Testing Center takes longer than you anticipated. Now you're late for your next class. You jog. You arrive and settle into your seat. The airways in your lungs constrict as you catch your breath. What division of the ANS brings about this constriction?
A bit of dirt gets blown into your eye. Tears flow. What division of the ANS brings about the flow?
What is another term for the sympathetic division of the ANS?
From what regions of the CNS does the sympathetic division arise?
lateral horns of T1-L2
What part of spinal nerves do the preganglionic sympathetic axons travel within as they leave the alteral horn of the spinal cord?
What sympathetic ganglia lie on the left and right sides of the vertebral columb from T1-L2?
sympathetic trunk ganglia
What structure in the sympathetic division of the ANS has the appearance of a pearl necklace?
What clusters of ganglia of the sympathetic division of the ANS lie within the neck?
What are the connections between the spinal nerves and the sympathetic trunks?
What structures carry preganglionic sympathetic axons from the T1-L2 spinal nerves to the sympathetic trunk?
white rami communicantes
What structures carry postganglionic axons from the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerves?
gray rami communicantes
What structures are composed of preganglionic axons that do not synapse in a sympathetic trunk ganglion?
Splanchnic nerves of the sympathetic division of the ANS terminate in what structures?
What structures are singular rahter than paired, are anterior to the vertebral column, and are located only in the abdominal cavity?
List the three prevertebral ganglia.
celiac, superior & inferior mesenteric ganglion
What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if it travesl theough a gray ramus that is at the same level as the ganglionic neuron to innervate blood vessels or arrector pili muscles or sweat glands?
spinal nerve pathway
What pathway is a postganglionic axon within if the preganglionic neuron synapses with a ganglionic neuron in a sympathetic trunk ganglion, but the postganglionic axon does not leave the...
postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
What pathway is postganglionic axon within if it passes through the sympathetic trunk ganglia without synapsing and extends to the prevertebral ganglia?
splanchnic nerve pathway
What pathway is a sympathetic axon within if it goes to the adrenal medulla?
adrenal medulla pathway
The pupil dilates when a person walks into a relatively dark building from a bright, snowy sinter's day. What division of the ANS brings about this dilation?
A test in the Testing Center takes longer than you anticipated. You're late for your next class. You jog. As you do the airways in your lungs dilate. What division of the ANS brings about this dilation?
After class you go for a game of racquetball and work up a sweat. What division of the ANS causes the formation of sweat?
If you are driving a Sanpete County road on a winter's day and a deer suddenly takes a suicidal leap in front of your car, what is the general response of your ANS?
Usually both division of the ANS innervate organs. Where does this dual innervation not occur?
skin & skeletal muscles
What are collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons and parasympathetic preganglionic axons, as well as some visceral sensory axons?
What part of the CNS has the greatest control over the ANS?
What part of the CNS holds nuclei which have a great deal of influence over autonomic function?
What division of the ANS may process and control certain functions at the level of the spinal cord without involvement of the brain?
What cranial nerve carries nearly 80% of the parasympathetic output?