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What are the four hallmarks of acute inflammation?
- 1) Vasodilation
- 2) Increased permeability
- 3) Increased adhesion
- 4) PMN recruitment***
What are the five signs of inflammation? (Prep-L)
- Loss of function
What are three principal cytokines released in response to inflammation?
IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha
What do the 3 principal cytokines produce? Result?
- Acute phase proteins: CRP, Haptoglobin, Fibrinogen
- Result = RBC Sedimentation
Which is the strongest Acute phase protein?
What is the function of CRP?
- 1) Opsonin
- 2) activate complement
- 3) Cytokine release from phagocytes
What are the two cytokines released from Macrophages and their functions?
- IL-12: NK cell activation
- IL-8: WBC chemoattractant
What is extravasation?
Movement of WBC through capillaries to fight infections (caused by vasodilation, permeability and adhesion)
What are two CAMs (Adhesion molecules)? Where?
- Integrins on WBC
- Selectins on endothelial cells
What cytokines upregulate the production of E and P selections?
TNF-alpha and IL-1
What is LAD?
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
What is LAD1?
no IL-18 = no Beta-2 integrins
What is LAD2?
No IL-15 (sialyl Lewis) = no E and P selectin ligand
During Extravasation, what is on the WBC that is active and causes it to bind to the endothelium?
Integrins and Selectin ligands
What is a clinical documentation of LAD?
High WBC count in blood b/c they can't extravasate and leave the capillaries
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