Food & Nutrition

Card Set Information

Food & Nutrition
2011-03-21 19:28:51

Spring 2011
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  1. ADA Statement
    Consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals
  2. Nutritive
    • Calories
    • Sugar
  3. Non-Nutritive
    • No calories
    • Truvia
  4. Added Sugars
    Eaten separately or used in processed or prepared foods
  5. Caloric Sweeteners
    Consumed directly and as food ingredients
  6. Sugars
    All monosaccharides and disaccharides
  7. Monosaccharides
    Glucose and fructose
  8. Disaccharides
  9. Sugar
    Indicates “sucrose” in ingredients
  10. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
    • Very similar to monosaccharides
    • Harder to digest- good because no calories, bad because it could create intestinal problems
    • Saccaharin
    • Asparame
    • Acesulfame K
    • Sucralose
    • Neotame
    • Stevia
    • Sweetness synergy
    • -Blending improve overall sweet taste profile
  11. Macronutrient substitutes
    –Sugar substitutes
    –Sugar replacers
    –Alternative sweeteners
    Other names for Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
  12. 4 kcal/g
    Energy from "Sugars"
  13. 2 kcal/g
    Not fully absorbed from the gut
    Energy from Sugar Alcohols/Polyols
  14. 0 kcal/g
    Energy from Non-Nutritive Sweeteners
  15. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) US
    Scientific Committee of Food (SCF) Europe
    Joint Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA) United Nations
    World Health Organization (WHO)
    Generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
    Who regulates sweeteners?
  16. Monosaccharide Polyols
    • Sorbitol
    • Mannitol
    • Xylitol
    • Erythritol
    • D-Tagatose
  17. Sorbitol
    • 2.6 kcal/g
    • GRAS- Label must warn about a laxative effect
    • 50%-70% as sweet as sucrose; some individuals experience a laxative effect from a load of > 50 g
  18. Mannitol
    • 1.6 kcal/g
    • Approved food additive; the label must warn about a laxative effect
    • 50%-70% as sweet as sucrose; some individuals experience a laxative effect from a load of > 50 g
  19. Xylitol
    • 2.4 kcal/g
    • Approved food additive for use in foods for special dietary uses
    • As sweet as sucrose; new forms have better free flowing abilities
  20. Erythritol
    • 0.2 kcal/g
    • Independent GRAS determinations; no questions from FDA
    • EDI mean: 1 g/p/d; 90th percentile: 4 g/p/d
    • 60%-80% as sweet as sucrose; also acts as a flavor enhancer, formulation aid, humectant, stabilizer and thickener, sequestrant, and texturizer
  21. D-Tagatose
    • 1.5 kcal/g
    • Independent GRAS determinations; no questions from FDA
    • EDI mean: 7.5 g/p/d; 90th percentile: 15 g/p/d ADI 15 grams/60 kg adult/d
    • 75%-92% as sweet as sucrose; sweetness synergizer; functions also as a texturizer, stabilizer, humectant, and formulation aid
  22. Disaccharide Polyols
    • Isomalt
    • Lactitol
    • Maltitol
    • Trehalose
  23. Isomalt
    • 2 kcal/g
    • GRAS affirmation petition filed
    • 45%-65% as sweet as sucrose; used as a bulking agent
  24. Lactitol
    • 2 kcal/g
    • GRAS affirmation petition filed
    • 30%-40% as sweet as sucrose; used as a bulking agent
  25. Maltitol
    • 2.1 kcal/g
    • GRAS affirmation petition filed
    • 90% as sweet as sucrose; used as a bulking agent
  26. Trehalose
    • 4 kcal/g
    • Independent GRAS determinations; no questions from FDA
    • EDI mean: 34 g/p/d; 90th percentile: 68 g/p/d
    • 45% as sweet as sucrose; functions also as a texturizer, stabilizer, and humectant
  27. Polysaccharide Polyol
  28. HSH
    • 3 kcal/g
    • GRAS affirmation petition filed
    • Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates; maltitol syrup
    • 25%-50% as sweet as sucrose (depending on the monosaccharide composition)
  29. How is it made?
    Properties in food and beverage systems?
    How much will be consumed and will certain groups be particularly susceptible to it?
    Is it safe and does it cause adverse effects to individuals or offspring (e.g., cancer?)
    Questions from FDA about artificial/non-nutritive sweeteners
  30. Testing of Sugars
    • Establish safety limits
    • Acceptable Daily Intake (ADIs)
    • 100 times less than no observed effect level “NOEL” from animal studies
    • Human intake usually much less than ADI
  31. Nutritive Sweeteners
    • Inborn desire for sweet taste
    • Easily digestible by most (Lactose intolerance)
    • Rare genetic abnormalities of carbohydrate mechanism
    • -Galactosemia, inherited fructose intolerance
    • No distinction between added and natural sugars to the body
  32. Sucrose
    • Sugar canes
    • Beets
    • Disaccharide of glucose + fructose
  33. Fructose
    • Mainly from fruit
    • Corn
    • Added to food and beverages as “high fructose corn syrup”
    • Replaced sucrose because of sweetening power, lower cost, and enhances flavor, color, and product stability
    • Synergizes sweetness potential of sucrose and some nonnutritive sweeteners
    • Syrup easier to handle than a solid
  34. Dietary Fructose Intake
    • Young men and women in age groups 15–18 y and 19–22 y had highest mean
    • Women had lower intakes than men
    • Found in a lot of fast foods and vending machines
    • Total sweetener availability increased by 2.2 g/d (1.0%) while HFCS increased by 4.0 g/d (6.0%)
  35. 10% Total come from fructose
    20% of Carbohydrate come from fructose
    -Sucrose, lactose, glucose, maltose, starch
    Percentage of energy that comes from our diet from fructose
  36. High Fructose Corn Syrup
    • Glucose + fructose (about 40% to 60% fructose)
    • Corn --> glucose syrup --> HFCS
  37. The fructose:glucose ratio in US food is mainly unchanged since we started using it in the 1960s
    -Unclear how or why HFCS would affect satiety or absorption
    “Based on the currently available evidence, the expert panel concluded that HFCS does not appear to contribute to overweight and obesity any differently than do other energy sources"
    Replacing sucrose
    High Fructose Corn Syrup Controveries
  38. Underestimated- more by women, kids, obese
    Food intake that is self reported is...
  39. Overestimated
    Food availability from economic estimates is...
  40. FDA regulated
    Labeling of Nutritive Sweeteners
  41. Sugar-Free
    Less than 0.5 g sugar= 2 calories
  42. Reduced or Less Sugar
    Reduced by 25%
  43. No Sugar Added
    No sugars added during processing
  44. Nutritive Sweeteners and Polyols
    • Can be labeled as sugar-free because they replace sugar sweeteners
    • Contain less energy than sugars
    • Potential health benefits
    • -Reduced glycemic response
    • -Decreased caries risk
    • -Prebiotic effects (help healthy bacteria in gut)
  45. Prebiotics of Nutritive Sweeteners
    • Short-chain carbohydrates
    • Resistant to human digestive enzymes
    • Reach cecum and affect colonic bacteria
    • Researchers: “consumed” by colonic microflora and might promote colon health and control disease conditions
  46. Sensory qualities
    –-Clean sweet taste, no bitterness, odorless
    Compatibility with other food ingredients
    Stability in different food environments
    Non-Nutritive Sweeteners are Evaluated for
  47. Acesulfame K
    • 5,6-dimethyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one-2,2 dioxide
    • 200 times sweeter than sucrose
    • 95% excreted unchanged in urine
    • Does not change intake of potassium
    • OK for high cooking/baking temps
    • Approved as a general-purpose sweetener
  48. Evaluation of Acesulfame K
    • Evaluated by JECFA in 1983 for safety
    • Approved in 1988 by the FDA
    • 1996 FDA approved as general purpose sweetener
    • ADI of up to 15 mg/kg bw/day
    • EDI is estimated at 20% of ADI
  49. Aspartame
    • Dipeptide + methanol
    • 160-220x’s sweeter than sucrose
    • Decomposes with excess heat; loses sweetening power
    • SCF and other agencies find: NOT a carcinogen and not associated with neurobehavioral disorders
    • Intestinal esterases hydrolyze aspartame to aspartic acid, methanol, and phenylalanine
    • 4 kcal/g, but so intensely sweet, the calorically insignificant amount needed
  50. Aspartame in the Body
    • –One serving milk has 6 times more phenylalanine and 13 times more aspartic acid
    • –Tomato juice has 6 times more methanol than an equal volume beverage sweetened 100% with aspartame
  51. Facts about Aspartame
    • ADI 40 mg/kg by/day
    • Intake about 6% of ADI
    • One packet of table top sweetener contains 35 to 40 mg of aspartame
    • 12 ounce soda has 225 mg (=100 mg phenylalanine)
    • 8 ounces yogurt up to 32 mg
  52. Neotame
    • 7,000-13,000 times sweeter than sucrose
    • Very low absorption from intestine
    • July 5, 2002 approved as a general purpose sweetener by the FDA
    • FDA ADI 18 mg/day
    • EDI .04 mg/kg bw/day
    • JECFA ADI 2 mg/kg bw/day
  53. Stevia
    • FDA GRAS approval as general purpose sweetener in December 2008
    • Stevia rebaudiana, South America
    • -Rebaudioside A is a component of the plant that provides sweetness
    • 250 to 300 times sweeter than sucrose
    • Steviol not absorbed by body
    • JECFA ADI 0-4 mg/kg bw/day
    • Marketed as Truvia and PureVia
  54. Saccharin
    • 200-700 times sweeter than sugar
    • Provides no energy
    • Largest volume, lowest cost high-intensity sweetener used in world
    • 2001 US Federal legislation
    • Declared no longer needs cancer warning
    • 1977 congress tried to ban because of concern about cancer in rats
    • ADI 5 mg/kg bw/day
    • Not to exceed 12 mg/fluid ounce in beverages and 30 mg per serving in processed goods
  55. Sucralose
    • 600 times sweeter than sucrose
    • Provides essentially no energy
    • Poorly absorbed
    • Heat stable
    • Contains 3 Chlorines which make it different
    • 1998 approved as a tabletop sweetener
    • -Desserts, confections, nonalcoholic beverages
    • 1999 approved by FDA as general purpose sweetener
    • ADI- 5 mg/kg bw/day
  56. Alitame
    Non-Nutritive Sweeteners not Approved Yet
  57. Nutritive Sweeteners and Pregnancy
    • Acceptable
    • Ones with calories
  58. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Pregnancy
    Based on well-designed and approved clinical investigations