immuno #4.txt

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Author:
kepling
ID:
74309
Filename:
immuno #4.txt
Updated:
2011-03-22 18:50:33
Tags:
immuno
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immuno #4
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  1. What receptor is utilized to separate self from non-self?
    Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR)
  2. What are two PRRs?
    • PAMP
    • Opsonins
  3. What are three opsonins?
    • Antibodies
    • Complement proteins
    • CRP
  4. Is phagocytosis oxygen dependent or independent?
    Both
  5. What do phagocytes produce in order to kill? "Respiratory Burst"
    ROIs and RNS
  6. What is the most common defect in phagocytes?
    NADPH deficiency "chronic granulomatous disease"
  7. Without NADPH, what is not produced in phagocytes?
    H2O2, Superoxide anion, ClO-
  8. What test is used for NADPH deficiency?
    Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)
  9. What is the function of chemokine and N-formylmethionyl receptors?
    Induce migration
  10. What is the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Cytokines?
    promote immune response via PAMPs
  11. What is the cytoplasmic domain of TLRs and what has to be in the extracellular environment?
    • TLR domain
    • Extracellular: Leucine-rich
  12. What two transcription factors are produced from TLR binding?
    NF-kB and IRF-3
  13. What is the function of NF-kB?
    • Inflammation
    • prepare cells for adaptive immunity
  14. What is the function of IRF-3?
    Antiviral replication and NK cell stimulation
  15. What are two Type 1 interferons and their functions?
    • IFN-alpha and beta
    • function:
    • 1) Anti-viral
    • 2) MHC receptor activation
    • 3) NK cell activation
  16. What five molecules activate NK cells?
    • IRF-3
    • IFN-alpha
    • IFN-beta
    • TNF-alpha
    • IL-12
  17. How do NK cells function?
    • 1) Perforins create channels
    • 2) Granzymes enter
    • 3) Capsases activate
    • 4) Apoptosis
  18. What is the Jak-STAT pathway?
    • Tyrosine Kinase
    • Jak cross-phosphorylates
    • STAT is phosphorylated
    • STAT dimerizes and enters the nucleus
    • STAT causes transcription
  19. What is the function of IFN-gamma?
    • Good for Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    • 1) Causes release of ROI
    • 2) Enhances other antimicrobial defenses
  20. What two cells naturally release IFN-gamma?
    • T cells
    • NK cells
  21. How are NK cells activated to release TFN-gamma?
    • Macrophages release IL-12
    • IL-12 binds to NK cells
    • NK cells activate and release factors as well as phagocytose
  22. Are cytokines innate or adaptive?
    Innate (Even if released in adaptive immunity by T-cells)

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