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What receptor is utilized to separate self from non-self?
Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR)
What are three opsonins?
- Complement proteins
Is phagocytosis oxygen dependent or independent?
What do phagocytes produce in order to kill? "Respiratory Burst"
ROIs and RNS
What is the most common defect in phagocytes?
NADPH deficiency "chronic granulomatous disease"
Without NADPH, what is not produced in phagocytes?
H2O2, Superoxide anion, ClO-
What test is used for NADPH deficiency?
Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)
What is the function of chemokine and N-formylmethionyl receptors?
What is the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Cytokines?
promote immune response via PAMPs
What is the cytoplasmic domain of TLRs and what has to be in the extracellular environment?
- TLR domain
- Extracellular: Leucine-rich
What two transcription factors are produced from TLR binding?
NF-kB and IRF-3
What is the function of NF-kB?
- prepare cells for adaptive immunity
What is the function of IRF-3?
Antiviral replication and NK cell stimulation
What are two Type 1 interferons and their functions?
- IFN-alpha and beta
- 1) Anti-viral
- 2) MHC receptor activation
- 3) NK cell activation
What five molecules activate NK cells?
How do NK cells function?
- 1) Perforins create channels
- 2) Granzymes enter
- 3) Capsases activate
- 4) Apoptosis
What is the Jak-STAT pathway?
- Tyrosine Kinase
- Jak cross-phosphorylates
- STAT is phosphorylated
- STAT dimerizes and enters the nucleus
- STAT causes transcription
What is the function of IFN-gamma?
- Good for Chronic Granulomatous Disease
- 1) Causes release of ROI
- 2) Enhances other antimicrobial defenses
What two cells naturally release IFN-gamma?
How are NK cells activated to release TFN-gamma?
- Macrophages release IL-12
- IL-12 binds to NK cells
- NK cells activate and release factors as well as phagocytose
Are cytokines innate or adaptive?
Innate (Even if released in adaptive immunity by T-cells)
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