Theory II

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Theory II
2011-03-21 23:46:37

ch 19 dental stains and discolorations
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  1. t/f extrinsic staining must be removed with whitening or bleaching
    FALSE can be removed with scaling and polishing
  2. where is extrinsci stain located?
    on the outside of the tooth
  3. wher eis intrinsic stain located?
    inside the tooth and cannot be removed
  4. what is an example of an exogenous stain?
    coffee stain
  5. what is an example of endogenous stain?
  6. wher eodes exogenous stain come from?
    originates outside the body
  7. where does endogenous stain originate?
    inside the body
  8. what are two methods of stain removal?
    • toothbrusing
    • scaling/polishing
  9. what are some cautions to be aware of when removing stain? 2
    • use light pressure don't want to put grooves in cementum
    • u/s don't overheat tooth
  10. what are the most frequently observed extrinsic stains? 4
    • yellow
    • green
    • black line
    • tobacco
  11. what are some less common extrinsic stains? 3
    • orange
    • red
    • metallic
  12. what cuase of the yellow coloration of stain?
    chromogenic bacteria
  13. what is the etiology of yellow stain?
    food pigments
  14. t/f the yellow stain is associated with the presence of dental biofilm
  15. what are the three forms of green stain?
    • small curved line following contour of facial gingival crest
    • smeared irregularly, may even cover entire facial surface
    • streaked, following grooves or lines in enamel
  16. t/f green stain is always embedded in tooth deposit
    false in biofilm can become intrinsic though
  17. t/f the enamel under green stain can become demineralized?
  18. what causes demineralization of enamel under green stain?
    carigenic biofilm
  19. _____ bacteria or gungi are retained and nourished in dental biofilm where the green stain is produced
  20. green discoloration may result from 3 things what are they?
    • chlorophyll preparations
    • metallic dusts of industry
    • certain drugs (MJ)
  21. black line stains are along the _____ third of the tooth and follows the ____ _____ contour
    • gingival
    • gingival crest contour
  22. t/f black line stain is mostly found in males and tobacco users
    FALSE! Women and in clean mouths
  23. black line stain is like ______ and is compsed of microorganisms embedded in an intermicrobial substance
  24. what is the color of tobacco stain?
    dpends on type of tobacco used (light brown to dark leathery brown or black)
  25. tobacco stan may cover the ____ third to the _____ tird of crown
    • cervical
    • central
  26. t/f tobacoo stain is incorporated in calculus deposit and can penetrate the enamel and become exogenous intrinsic
    true true
  27. t/f the amount of tobacco stain is proportional to the amount of tobacco used
    FALSE it is not proportional to the amount of tobacco used
  28. where is tobacco stain most frequently found?
    lingual surfaces of lower anterior
  29. what is brown pellicale stain similar to?
    black line stain (recurs readily after removal)
  30. what foodstuffs cause brown stain?
    • tea
    • coffee
    • soy suace
  31. what is an antibiofilm agent that causes brown stains?
    • chlorahexidine
    • alexidine
  32. t/f antibioflim agents such as chlorahexidine stain the enamel more rapidly than exposed roots
    false! stain roots more rapidly than enamel
  33. t/f betel has a caries inhibiting effect
  34. betel leaf consists of microorgnisms and mineralized material with a laminated pattern characterist of ___ ___
    subgingival calculus
  35. how is betel leaf stain removed
  36. t/f betel leaf is a cultural habit
  37. t/f orange stain is more rare than red
    FALSE red is more rare (your red meat is really rare, its still mooing)
  38. where do red or orange stains appear?
    on the cervical third of anterior teeth
  39. what is the etiology of red and orange stains
    chromogenic bacteria
  40. where do metallic stains come from?
    • industrial workers inhale dust
    • drugs
  41. t/f endogenous intrinsic stains may be related to the period of tooth development
  42. in pulpless teeth pgments from the decomposed hemoglbin and pulp tissue may penetrate what?
    dentinal tubules
  43. what trimester does tetracyclines affect the baby?
    third trimester (when teeth are being developed)
  44. when would taking tetracyclines affect the adult teeth?
    infancy and early childhood
  45. t/f the discoloration of teeth from tetracycline is dependant on dosage, length of time ad type of tetracycline taken
  46. is discoloration from tetracycline generalized or limited to specific parts of teeth?
    both depends on time of administration of antibiotic
  47. what are two forms of hereditary imperfect tooth developments?
    • amelogenesis imperfecta
    • dentinogenesis imperfecta
  48. what is it when the enamel is partially or completely missing because of a generalized disturbance of the ameloblast? what color would the teeth be?
    • amelogenesis imprefect
    • yellowish brown or gray brown
  49. what is it called when the dentin is abnormal as a result of disturbances in the odontoblastic layer during development? what color would the teeth appear to be?
    • dentiogenesis imperfecta
    • translucent or opalexcent and vary in color from gray to bluish brown
  50. what are two types of enamel hypoplasia?
    systemic and local hypoplasia
  51. what type of enamel hypoplasia affects a single tooth?
    local hypoplasia
  52. what type of enamel hypoplasia is it when teeth erupt with white spots or with pits?
    systemic hypoplasia
  53. t/f with systemic and local hypoplasia the white spots may become discolored from food pigments or other substances taken into the mouth
  54. what is enamel hypomineralization result from?
    ingestion of excessive fluoride ion in drinking water (more than 2 parts per million) during the period of mineralization
  55. t/f enamel hypomineralization is a result from toxic damage to the ameloblast from excessive fluoride intake
  56. t/f pigments circulating in the blood are transmitted to the dentin from the capillaries of the pulp and can cause discolorations
  57. t/f jaudice early in life can impart a yellow or greenish discoloration to the teeth
  58. what causes erythroblastosis fetalis?
    Rh incompatibility (Rh-)
  59. what color would teeth appear for erythroblastosis fetalis?
    green, brown or blue
  60. when intrinsic stains come from outside source not from within the tooth what are they called?
    exogenous intrinsic
  61. what are two extrinsic stains that can provide stain that becomes intrinsic?
    • tobacco
    • green stains
  62. what restorative materials can cause exogenous intrinsic stains?
    • silver amalgam
    • copper amalgam
  63. _____ ions of silver amalgams migrate from the amalgam restoration into the _____ and _____
    • metallic ions
    • enamel and dentin
  64. what materials used in endo can cause intrinsic stains and what colors would they stain? 5
    • silver nitrate- bluish-black
    • volatile oils-yellowish-brown
    • strong iodine-brown
    • aureomycin-yellow
    • silver containing root canal sealer-black
  65. what is dentin stain usually caused by?
    carious lesion
  66. what must be recorded about stain? 5
    • location
    • color
    • type
    • extent
    • cause