Evolution Test Review
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How old is the Earth estimated to be?
4.6 billion years old
What were the first forms of life on Earth?
How long ago were the first forms of life to live on Earth?
3.5 billion years ago
How did cyanobacteria change the young Earth's atmosphere?
Through the process of photosynthesis released oxygen into the atmosphere.
What was the first group of eukaryotes on Earth?
What does the endosymbiont theory propose?
That cell organelles were formed from different kinds of bacteria.
How many mass extinctions has the Earth had?
What is mycorrhizae?
The mutualistic relationship between plants and fungus.
What were the first animals to invade land?
What were the first vertabrates on Earth?
What animals can survive both on land and in water?
What did Carolus Linnaeus do?
Developed a classification system based on similarities and evolutionary relationships of organisms.
What did Thomas Malthus do?
Proposed that the human population will grow faster than the food supply if left unchecked.
What did John-Baptiste Lamark do?
Proposed that changes in an environment lead to a greater use or disuse of a structure and is passed onto offspring.
What did Charles Darwin do?
- Traveled the world and published his findings about finches in a book.
- Created natural selection and the four principles of natural selections.
What are the four principles of natural selection?
- over production
- descent with modification
What is natural selection? What is also know as?
- Individuals that have a trait that is better suited for their environment will survive and reproduce and those that don't will not.
- "Survival of the fittest"
Where did Darwin conduct much of his research?
The Galapagos Islands
What is a homologous structure?
A structure that is similar in structure but have a different function.
What is an example of a homologous structure?
The for limbs of tetrapod vertabres (humans, moles, and bats)
What is an analogous structure?
A structure that is similar in structure but different in origin.
What is an example of an anologous structure?
Wings of a bat and an insect
Describe the three types of natural selection?
- Directional Selection: One extreme phenotype is perfered over others
- Stabalizing Selection: When the intermediate phenotype is favored
- Disruptive Selection: When both extreme phenotypes are favored
What is a fossil?
traces of an organism that lived in the past
What is a gene pool?
All of the alleles in within a population.
What is gene flow?
something that increases the genetic variation of the receiving population.
What is speciation?
The rise of two or more species from one existing species.
What are the four causes of speciation?
- Reproductive Isolation
- Behavioral Isolation
- Geographic Isolation
- Temporal Isolation
What are the 5 type of evidence of evolution?
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