Biology 202 - Lecture 5

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Biology 202 - Lecture 5
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2011-03-21 21:59:15
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Lecture 5
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  1. Lecture V. TheOsteichthyes
    • - Common Characteristics
    • - Class Actinopterygii
    • - Class Sarcopterygii
  2. Do bony fishes share any common characteristics?
    • Osteichthyes has several defining characteristics:
    • - bony ridge scales
    • - fins supported by scales (vs.rods in Chondrichthyes)
    • - skull (including jaws) and shoulder girdle composed largelyof dermal bone, with teeth rooted in jaws
    • - gill slits covered by a bony operculum
    • - swim bladder or lung for buoyancy and/or gas exchange
    • - coiled intestine & ceca
  3. Class Actinopterygii
    • The 'ray-finned fishes' include approx. 1/3 of vertebrate species
    • - fin rays form a "fan"
    • - includes a few 'primitive' forms, with heavy scales and simple jaws (e.g. bichirs, sturgeons, bowfin)
    • Actinopterygii also includes ~24,000 species of teleosts -e.g. tangs, triggerfish, suckers, bony-tongues, eels,pikes, tunas, perch, salmon, cod, sunfish, bass,haddock, barbs, angelfish....
  4. Teleosts share several key adaptations:
    • - a protrusible upper jaw
    • - pharyngeal jaws with teeth
    • - a homocercal tail
  5. Teleosts are tremendously diverse:
    • - habitats vary in terms of temperature, salinity, depth,dessication
    • - scales vary in terms of size, shape, colour,modification
    • - the skin includes many derivatives (flaps,barbels, poison glands...)
    • - bodies vary in size and shape,and fins vary in size, shape,location and function
    • - feeding habits vary widely
    • - reproductive modesvary (courtship,fertilization, fecundity,parental care...)
    • - migration habits vary (resident,anadromous [spawn in fresh water,mature in ocean], catadromous (spawnin ocean, mature in fresh water])
    • - lifespan varies
  6. Class Sarcopterygii
    • The ‘lobe-finned fishes’ includethe lungfishes and coelacanth:
    • - heavy scales
    • - fleshy fins with fin raysthat form a "feather"
    • - lungs, and doublecirculation with a 3-chambered heart
    • - may aestivate during droughts
    • - early forms gave rise to the tetrapods...

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