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What are three types of infections (general)?
- neurotoxins from microorganisms
What is pyogenic meningitic caused by?
- a bacterial infection that reaches the meninges through:
- open head injury
- sinus/ear infection
- blood stream
What are the signs and symptoms and diagnostic procedure of pyogenic meningitis?
- S/S: fever, headache, lethargy, vommiting, confusion, seizures
- Diag: lumbar puncture, increase in white cell count
What is the prognosis for individuals with pyogenic meningitis?
- 20% of infants die
- survivors could be deaf, blind, develop seizures/strokes, or hydrocephalus
- HELLEN KELLER
What is the cause of encephalitis?
a viral infection transmitted by mosquitos
What are the symptoms and treament methods for encephalitis?
- S/S: headache, fever, lethargy, seizures, stiff neck, irritable
- Treat: supportive
What is the prognosis for patients with encephalitis?
- depends on virus
- mortaliity can be 50%
What is the cause of a brain abscess?
bacterial infection that originates in the ear, heart, lung, site of trauma, or teeth
What are the signs and symptoms and diagnosis process for brain abscess?
- S/S: headache, fever, nausea, focal signs, papilledema, seizures
- Diag: brain scan, lumbar puncture, EEG
What is the treatment and prognosis of patients with brain abscess?
- Treat: antibiotics, drain abcess, steroids
- Prog: 40% die and remainder have residual deficits
What is the cause of tetanus?
neurotoxins from Clostridium Tetani entering through a deep puncture wound
What are signs and symptoms for tetanus?
What is the treatment and prognosis for patients with tetanus?
- Treat: clean wound, take anitbiotics, antitoxin, neuromuscular block
- Prog: 15% die, others fully recover in several weeks
What is the cause of Botulism Toxomia?
neurotoxin from Clostridium Botulinum from improperly canned food or infected wounds
What are the signs and treatment for botulism toxomia?
- S/S: double vision, ptosis, descending paresis
- Treat: ventilator, antitoxin
What is the prognosis for patients with Botulism Toxomia?
8% die, recovery takes months
What is the cause of Guillain Barre?
- viral respiratory illness that leads to autoimmune post-infectious neuritis
- myelin sheaths of perpheral nerves disintergrate
What are signs and symptoms of Guillain Barre?
- ascending paresis
- respiratory failure
- nerve conduction velocity slowed
What is the treatment and prognosis of Guillain Barre?
- Treat: supportive, ventilator, plasmophoresis
- Prog: recovery takes up to 2 years
What is the cause of Herpes Zoster?
- virus that causes chicken pox stress, immune suppression, aging
What are the symptoms of Herpes Zoster?
- pain in affected dermatome
What is the treatment for Herpes Zoster?
- antiviral medication
- pain meds
- antiinflammatory meds
What is the prognosis for Herpes Zoster?
- recovery is slow, and may re-occur
- visual loss is possible
What is the cause of Beye's Syndrome?
- prior viral illness
- linked use of aspirin
What are symptoms and treatment for Beye's Syndrome?
- S/S: nausea, vomiting, lethargy, delirium
- Treat: supportive, mechanical ventilation
What is the prognosis of people with Beye's Syndrome?
- 20% if children affected die
- high risk of neurological consequences