General Bone Info

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Author:
hgienau
ID:
74372
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General Bone Info
Updated:
2011-03-26 18:35:40
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Patho Test Three
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hg
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  1. List the function of bones
    • Rigid support for the body
    • protection of viscera, SC and Brain
    • Storage of calcium and phosphate
    • Production of blood cells
  2. Skeletal Muscle Function
    • movement
    • maintain position
    • stabilize
    • body temperature
  3. Function of the Ligaments
    • Attach bone to bone
    • static stabilizers
    • non contractile
    • propioceptors
    • little blood supply slow healing
  4. Effects of Anabolic Steroids
    • synthetic hormones that muscle strength and mass
    • Serious side effect: liver damage, CV disease, personality changes, emotional lability and sterility
  5. Function of Tendons
    • attach muscle to bone
    • dynamic stabilizers
    • contractile
    • little blood supply, slow healing
  6. Stages of Healing
    • Hematoma
    • Granulation tissue
    • Procallus (fibrocartiliage) -PWB, fragile
    • Bony callus - stronger
    • Remolding: osteoclast remove fracture pieces remodel bone, WB usually allowed
  7. Complications from Fractures
    • Damage to adjacent tissue/ structures
    • Pain ms. spasm
    • Ischemia
    • if open risk for infection
    • nerve damage
    • failure to heal
    • compartment syndrome (swelling with in the fasicle compartemnt can lead to nerve and circulatory sompression pain can lead to ampulation)
    • Fat emboli - from blood marrow
    • In near joint can lead to deformities
  8. Factors that affect healing time.
    • Age of Pt
    • Site and confiuration of fracture
    • Intial displacement of frature
    • blood supply
    • UE 6-12 wks
    • LE 12-24wks
  9. Rehab Treatment Goals
    • Presserve function during immob.
    • kunut ns atropy maintain circulation minimize contracture return to previous functiona level
  10. Rehab Complications
    • Early: poor healing due to infection, poor circulation
    • non union or mal unions
    • skin
    • vascular
    • Late:
    • Persistent osteomyelitis - bone infection
    • Joint Adhesions
    • RSD
    • Post Traumatic osteoporosis
  11. Management of Dislocations
    • reduction and immobilization
    • Gradual Return to mobility
    • ROM: avoid the motions of dislocation
    • gradual strenthening program
    • function activites
  12. Define Subluxation
    partial displacement, partial contact of bone surfaces
  13. Define Dislocation
    complete loss of joint interrity with loss of joint anatomical relationship
  14. Define a sprain
    an injury to a ligament where the ligament sustains a load or force sufficient to produce a mechanical disruption of structural fibers
  15. Grade of sprains
    • Grade 1: microscpoic tear, no joint laxity, present with mild edema and pain with activity
    • Grade II: tearing of some fibers: moderate laxity moderate pain limits activity movement and palaption are painful, Treat non-surgically: PRICE
    • Grade III: near complete or complete rupture, prfound laxity and unstable may be treated surgically will be immobilized follow facility and doctors protocols
  16. Define Strains
    Injury to a musculo-tendon unit, results from over stretching or excessive contraction orces (often in awkard positions) that exceed the physiological limit of the tissue
  17. Grades of Strains
    • Grade I: less than 50% damage
    • Grade II: more than 50% damage
    • Grade III: complete tear
  18. Sprains Common Sites, Treatment and Prevention
    • Common Sites: AC joint, Latera ankle, hand and finger
    • Treatment: Acute: PRICE
    • Rehab: early WB and control inflammation
    • Prevention: braces, tape, strength, flexability, warm-up
  19. Strains S&S, Treatment, and Prevention
    • S&S: pain wiht AROM, tender to palpation. May feel a knot may see brusing or swelling
    • Grade III: marked pain during activity which subsides. absolute loss of function. Ruptured tissue will be felt as a ball that has migrated toward the intact insertion point of bone
    • Treatment: price
    • Prevention: warm up, dont move in awkward posistions
  20. Signs and Sym of Meniscal Injuries
    • May cuase knee to lock in flexed position
    • Pain at time of injury then subsides to mild edema
    • Sensation of joint crepitue of licking
    • Specific test to confirm dx, best test is arthroscope

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