Bio 16 vocab
Card Set Information
Bio 16 vocab
neurotransmitter active in both the peripheral and central nervous systems.
enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine bound to post-synaptic receptors within a synapse.
electrochemical changes that take place across the axomembrane; the nerve impulse.
alzheimer disease (AD)
brain disorder characterized by a general loss of mental abilities.
portion of the limbic system that functions to add emotional overtones to memories.
one of several regions of the cerebral cortex related to memory, reasoning, judgement, and emotional feelings.
branch of the peripheral nervous system that has control over the internal organs; consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
elongated portion of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses typically from the cell body to the synapse.
small swelling at the tip of one of many endings of the axon.
nerve cells that integrate motor commands to ensure balance and coordination.
enlarged superior portion of the central nervous system located in the cranial cavity of the skull.
portion of the brain consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain.
region of the frontal lobe that coordinates complex muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx, making speech possible.
portion of a neuron that contains a nucleus and from which dendrites and an axon extend.
central nervous system (CNS)
portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
part of the brain located posterior to the medulla oblongata and pons that coordinates skeletal muscles to produce smooth, graceful motions.
outer layer of cerebral hemispheres; receives sensory information and controls motor activities.
one of the large, paired structures that together constitute the cerebrum of the brain.
fluid found in the ventricles of the brain, in the central canal of the spinal cord, and in association with the meninges.
main part of the brain consisting of two large masses, or cerebral hemispheres; the largest part of the brain in mammals.
bridge of nerve tracts that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
nerve that arises from the brain.
branched ending of a neuron that conducts signals toward the cell body.
when the charge inside the axon changes from positive to negative.
portion of the brain in the region of the third ventricle that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.
neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
mass of sensory neuron cell bodies located in the dorsal root of a spinal nerve.
dependence on a drug, which assumes an "essential" biochemical role in the body following habituation and tolerance.
muscle or gland that responds to stimulation.
capacity of brain to store and retrieve information with regard to persons and events.
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS.
collections of nerve cell bodies found in the peripheral nervous system.
collection or bundle of neuron cell bodies usually outside the central nervous system.
major excitatory CNS neurotransmitter.
non myelinated axons and cell bodies in the central nervous system.
portion of the limbic system where memories are stored.
part of the brain located below the thalamus that helps regulate the internal environment of the body and produces releasing factors that control the anterior pituitary.
summing up of excitatory and inhibitory signals by a neuron or by some part of the brain.
neuron located within the central nervous system that conveys messages between parts of the central nervous system.
relatively permanent change in behavior that results from practice and experience.
association of various brain centers, including the amygdala and hippocampus; governs learning and memory and various emotions, such as pleasure, fear, and happiness.
retention of information that lasts longer than a few minutes.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced response at synapses within the hippocampus; likely essential to memory storage.
part of the brain stem that is continuous with the spinal cord; controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, and other vital functions.
capacity of the brain to store and retrieve information about past sensations and perceptions; essential to learning.
meninges (sing., meninx)
protective membranous coverings about the central nervous system.
part of the brain located below the thalamus and above the pons; contains reflex centers and tracts.
nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses away from the central nervous system and innervates effectors (muscles and glands).
white, fatty material, derived from the membrane of Schwann cells, that forms a covering for nerve fibers.
action potential (electrochemical change) traveling along a neuron.
nonconducting nerve cells that are intimately associated with neurons and function in a supportive capacity.
nerve cell that characteristically has three parts; dendrites, cell body, and axon.
chemical stored at the ends of axons that is responsible for transmission across a synapse.
node of Ranvier
gap in the myelin sheath around a nerve fiber.
neurotransmitter of the postganglionic fibers in the sympathetic division of the autonomic system; also, a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla.
membrane-bounded organelle that contains chromosomes and controls the structure and function of the cell.
that part of the autonomic system that is active under normal conditions; uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter.
progressive deterioration of the central nervous system due to a deficiency in the neurotransmitter dopamine.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves and ganglia that lie outside the central nervous system.
portion of the brain stem above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain; assists the medulla oblongata in regulating the breathing rate.
association area in the frontal lobe that receives information from other association areas and uses it to reason and plan actions.
primary somatosensory area
area dorsal to the central sulcus where sensory information arrives from skin and skeletal muscles.
automatic, involuntary response of an organism to a stimulus.
time following an action potential when a neuron is unable to conduct another nerve impulse.
when the charge inside the axon resumes a negative charge.
polarity across the plasma membrane of a resting neuron due to an unequal distribution of ions.
complex network of nerve fibers within the central nervous system that arouses the cerebrum.
movement of nerve impulses from one neurofibril node to another along a myelinated axon.
cell that surrounds a fiber of peripheral nerve and forms the myelin sheath.
capacity of the brain to store and retrieve information with regard to words or numbers.
nerve cell that transmits nerve impulses to the central nervous system after a sensory receptor has been stimulated.
structure that receives either external or internal environmental stimuli and is a part of a sensory neuron or transmits signals to a sensory neuron.
retention of information for only a few minutes, such as remembering a telephone number.
capacity of the brain to store and retrieve information necessary to perform motor activities, such as riding a bike.
carrier protein in the plasma membrane that moves sodium tons out of and potassium ions into cells; important in nerve and muscle cells.
that portion of the peripheral nervous system containing motor neurons that control skeletal muscles.
part of the central nervous system; the nerve cord that is continuous with the base of the brain plus the vertebral column that protects the nerve cord.
nerve that arises from the spinal cord.
change in the internal or external environment that a sensory receptor can detect, leading to nerve impulses in sensory neurons.
the part of the autonomic system that usually promotes activities associated with emergency (fight or flight) situations; uses norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter.
junction between neurons consisting of the presynaptic (axon) membrane, the synaptic cleft, and the post synaptic (usually dendrite) membrane.
small gap between presynaptic and post synaptic membranes of a synapse.
part of the brain located in the lateral walls of the third ventricle that serves the integrating center for sensory input; it plays a role in arousing the cerebral cortex.
electrical potential level (voltage) at which an action potential or nerve impulse is produced.
bundle of myelinated axons in the central nervous system.
cavity in an organ, such as a lower chamber of the heart or the ventricles of the brain.
brain area involved in language comprehension.
myelinated axons in the central nervous system.