Biopsychology Test Sleep

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Biopsychology Test Sleep
2011-03-22 01:15:03
Biopsychology Test Sleep

Biopsychology Test Sleep
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  1. Two catagories of sleep theory
    • Recuperation theories of sleep
    • Adaption Theories of sleep

    *There is evidence for and against sleep one perfect theory (maybe combination)
  2. Recuperation Theories of sleep
    • Two theories...
    • 1)Restorative Theory
    • 2) Eliminatino Theory
  3. Restorative Theory
    • Under Recuperation theory for sleep theory
    • Focuses on reparin and regeneration of body
    • No such need identified..People function ok after intervals witout sleep
  4. Elimination Theory
    • Under Recuperation theory for sleep Theory
    • Sleep gets the body and brain rid of excess sensory info
    • "organized thoughts"
  5. Immobilzation theory
    • Theory under Adaption Theories for Sleep Theories
    • Sleep is an innate response w/ species specific patterns
    • Keeps one inactive and safe in leasst efficient part of light cycle (night time)

    • All vertebrates have circadian sleep cycle
    • High metabolilsm =sleep more (bats cats etc) vs fewer predators so sleep less (cattle and horses)
  6. Energy COnservation theory
    • Part of Adaption theory of sleep theory
    • following survival activities, periods of inactivity are a good way to conserve energy
  7. 3 Physiological Measure of Arousal and Sleep
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • electroculogram (EOG)
    • Electromyogram (EMG)
  8. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Measure of "brain waves"...see actvity of cortex
  9. Electroculogram (EOG)
    Measure of eye movements seen during REM sleep
  10. Electromyogram (EMG)
    Measure of loss of activity in facial and neck muscles during some stages of sleep (Mentalis muscle)
  11. Mentalis Muscles
    • Located on neck
    • determines if you are awake or asleep. Relaxes once you go to sleep
  12. Passive Theory of Sleep
    • Bremer (1936)
    • Believed sleep was passive . we create environment where we shut out sensory input so we tend to sleep
    • Cerveau isole
  13. Cerveau isole
    means "isolated forward": seperate forebrain from high brain

    Goes along with Passive sleep theory
  14. Active theory of sleep
    • Moruzzi and Magoun (M&M) (1949)
    • **sleep is an ACTIVE process**
    • encephale isole
  15. Encephale isole
    • Seperate entire brain from spinal chord
    • Pattern of sleep is unchanged.
    • Proved that section of brain that controlled sleep is located in the Pons
  16. Arousal Hormones (4)
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norephinephrine
    • Seretonin
    • Histamine
  17. Acetylcholine
    • Dorsal pons and basal forebrain
    • activity and levels are high during waking and REM sleep
    • coritcal and hippocampal arousal
  18. Norephinephrine
    • locus coeruleus (in pons)
    • activity and levels high during waking only
    • attention and vigilance...allows you to stay focused
  19. Seretonin
    • Reapeh nuclei (in pons)
    • activity and levesl high during waking
    • cortical and behavorial arousal
  20. Histamine
    • tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn of the hypothalamus)
    • activity and levels high during waking
    • cortical activation and arousal
  21. Hormones involved in Slow wave sleep
    • GABA
    • Adenosine
  22. GABA
    • Slowly increases in stages 1 and 2
    • occurs in the Ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA)
    • Responsible for maintaining sleep
    • is an inhibitory neurotransmitter **
    • Found all over system and afffects all neurons
    • known as the "Gatekeeper": allows certain parts of brain to be active at given times
    • Responsible for getting person into slow wave sleep
  23. Adenosine
    • all neurons active during waking...prolonged wakefulness and metabolic activity of neurons in brain
    • Adenosice builds up and stimualtes vlPOA. More activity mean more GABA waves
    • results in the need to sleep
  24. Sleep/Waking Flip Flop
    • When the flip-flop is in the "wake" state, the arousal systems are active and the vlPOA is inhibited and the animal is awake
    • When the flip-flop is in the "sleep" state the vlPOA is active and he arousal systems are inhibited and the animal is asleep
  25. Orexinergic
    • located in the lateral hypothalamus
    • Stimulated when you are motivated to be awake
    • thougs and behavoirs that help wake you up
    • Stimulates arousal neurotransmitters which further promotes awakeness

    **kf you knock out orexinergic a decrease of arousal NT will result leading to feelings of drowsiness**
  26. Mutual inhibition
    • When one part is more active is till flip off other area (inhibit area)...when less active allows to turn on
    • Being regulated by GABA
  27. Sleep-promoting region in vlPOA
    • When active inhibits activity of arousal mechanism
    • When inhibited you are awake
    • if arousal system is activeted release all NT and are high during awake
  28. Factors that affect LH orexinergic neurons
    • Promotes:
    • Biological clock-time of day
    • Hunger signals

    • Inhibits..
    • Satiety signals

    **during the morning..when your hungry..feel like waking up**

    • Satiety signals: Have an inhibitory affect of orexinergic neurons.
    • Kick in after a meal...doesnt last very long so not very servere but causes drowsiness.
  29. Satiety signals
    • Have an inhibitory affect of orexinergic neurons.
    • Kick in after a meal...
    • doesnt last very long so not very servere but causes drowsiness.
  30. Superior collicull (SLD)
    • becomes activated when sleep
    • Eye movement and some stimuatation of muscle
    • Represents REM-ON

    • Affects....
    • Acetylcholine (ACh) neurons in pons...Lateral preoptic area....results in Genital activity
    • Acetylcholine (ACh) neurons in forebrain...results in Cortical arousal and affects the Tectum
    • inhibitory interneurons...surpresses motor neorons
  31. Amygdala
    • Controls emotional stimuli when sleeping
    • Initiates SLD
  32. vlPAG
    Represents REM-OFF
  33. REM atonia
    Inhibitory neurons and mechanixm to stop movement during REM doing work...can get up and act out dreams
  34. Narcolepsy and 4 primary symptoms
    Fall asleep constantly (day sleep attacks)

    • 1) sleep attacks (happen suddenly)
    • 2) Cataplexy: loose muscle tone (randomly drop things or drop on floor completly )
    • 3)sleep paralysis: loss of muscle tone just before or after you wake up
    • 4) Hypnagogic hallucinations: REM component of dreams while you are awake..usually hand in hand with sleep paralysis (dream while awake)
  35. Narcolepsy Treatment
    • Stimulaants (ie. provigil; ritalin; amphetamines; oreixin defiency)
    • Selective srotonin or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: allow seratonin.nore. to stay in synpse longer and promote awakeness (ie. prozac; xyrem; strattera; tofanil; vivactil)
  36. Narcolepsy cause
    • Auto immune disorder:
    • Environmental trigger that causes body to attack itself. triggered buy virus or environmental toxin.