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HAIs account for an estimated?
2 million infections
Approximately how many patients under mechanical ventilation develop pneumonia as a complication?
Approximately how many patients will die as a result of lung infection?
What is the PRIMARY source for infectious agents in a health care setting?
Humans (patients, personnel, or visitors)
When a pathogen is transferred directly from one person to another, this transmission is called?
Direct contact transmission
This is the most frequent mode of transmission in the health care environment which involves the transfer of pathogens through a contaminated intermediate object or person..
Indirect contact transmission
This form of transmission is generated by an infected individual that discharges large contaminated liquid droplets into the air by coughing, sneezing or talking
HICPAC states that we should wear a mask and stand how far away from the patient who is on droplet isolation..?
NIOSH approved of what mask to be prevent airborne transmission...?
What is chemoprophylaxis?
the use of a drug or chemical to prevent a disease
OSHA requires employers offer what?
Hepatitis B vaccination
Infection control procedures designed to remove environmental pathogens fall into two major categories which are?
General sanitation measures
Specialized equipment processing
Equipment processing involves what three things?
The three major approaches used to prevent the spread of infection in healthcare agencies are?
- Specialized equipment handling procedures
- Barrier/isolation precautions
- Single-patient-use disposable equipment
What is the first step in all equipment processing?
Electrical equipment should be disinfected using a ________ solution or the equivalent.
70% ethyl alcohol
What solution should be used to disinfect the surfaces of the room of a patient who was infected with C. difficile?
5.25% sodium hypochlorite
What is the recommended solution to clean up blood spills?
1:10 dilution of bleach
What is the meaning autoclaving?
Steam sterilization which is the application of steam under pressure.
Which is the worse offender of nebulizers?
Large volume nebulizers
Ventilator circuitry poses the most significant contamination risk, particularly in systems using heated humidifier because?
tapwater or distilled water may harbor heat-resistant pathogens, thus sterile water should be used.
There are four categories of expanded precautions which are?
- Airborne infection
- Protective environment
What is cohorting?
The grouping of patients with same infection together
What are the five key recommended components of an infection control program?