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What are antibodies?
A protein that is produced in response to and that attacks a disease antigen.
What is an antigen?
A surface protein on most viruses and bacteria that identifies them as "self" or "not self".
What is bacteria?
A microscopic single-celled organism that can range in length from 1 to 20 micrometers.
Capable of killing bacteria.
Capable of inhibiting bacterial growth or reproduction.
What are exotoxins?
Poisonous proteins shed by bacteria during bacterial growth.
What is fungus?
A plantlike microorganism, most of which are not pathogenic. Examples are mold, mushrooms and yeast.
What is hepatitis B?
- A highly contagious disease that can affect the liver.
- High risk for EMS workers and is transmitted by bodily fluids.
- The series of three immunizations has nearly a 90% effectiveness.
- The virus is stable on surfaces with dried blood for up to 7 days
What are immunoglobulins?
- IgM, IgG, IgE, IgD, IgA
Define index case.
The individual who first introduced an infectious agent to a population.
What is an infection?
The presence of an agent within the host, not necessarily causing disease.
What is a leukocyte?
A general term for a white blood cell.
What is lymph?
A fluid that has the same composition as interstial fluid and is collected from between the tissue into the lymphatic system, filtered by the lymph nodes and returned to the circulatory system.
What is a macrophage?
A type of white blood cell that is a phagocyte and is the second most common phagocytic white blood cell beside a neutrophil.
Briefly discuss the measles.
A highly contagious, acute viral disease characterized by a reddish rash that appears on the 4th or 5th day of illness. Transmission is by droplet inhalation and direct contact. Incubation period is 1-2 weeks normally about 10 days. Presents like a severe cold with high fever. Rash normally lasts about 6 days.
Briefly describe meningitis.
An inflammation of the meninges that can be either bacterial or viral. Incubation period is typically 2-4 days, but may be as long as 10. Assess using Brudzinski's or Kernig's sign. Standard precautions and a mask will provide adequate protection for EMS providers.
What is mononucleosis?
- Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
- Poses little threat to EMS workers.
- Known as the "kissing" disease.
- Has a 4-6 week incubation period.
- Presents with fatigue, sore throat, fever, enlarged lymph nodes.
- Can also have splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).
- Over 95% of adults have antibodies to the virus, over half of children will have had mono by age five.
- Usually confers immunity for life.
Briefly discuss mumps.
- An acute viral disease characterized by painful enlargement of the salivary glands.
- Incubation period of 12-25 days, last about 2 weeks.
- Presents with a feverish cold followed by swelling and stiffening of the parotid salivary gland, bilaterally.
- Mostly found in children from 5-15 years.
- Confers life long immunity.
What are neutrophils?
The most common phagocytic white blood cell.
What is an obligate intracellular parasite?
An organism that can only grow and reproduce within a host cell (viruses).
What are opportunistic pathogens?
Ordinarily nonharmful bacterium that cause disease only under unusual circumstances.
What is pertussis?
- A bacterial disease characterized by severe, violent coughing, aka whooping cough.
- Has an incubation period of 6-20 days.
- Three phases: catarrhal, presenting like a cold lasts 1-2 weeks; paroxysmal, fever subsides, mild cough becomes violent with the "whoop" can last a month or longer; convalescent, coughing decreases and patient is no longer contagious.
- Transmission is by respiratory secretions.
How long is the incubation period of SARS?
2-7 days, but may be as long as 10-14.
What is seroconversion?
The creation of antibodies after an exposure to a disease.
What are T lymphocytes?
Cells that attack antigens in cell mediated responses. Helper T's, supressor T's and killer T's.
Briefly describe tuberculosis.
- The most common preventable adult infectious disease in the world.
- Caused by bacterium that infects the respiratory tract.
- Incubation is 4-12 weeks, disease normally occurs 6-12 months after infection.
- A N95 respirator is currently the recommended protection for EMS providers.
What are the types of disinfection?
Low level: Destroys most bacteria and some viruses and fungi. Used for general housekeeping. EPA approved disinfectants.
Intermediate level: Destroys TB bacterium and most viruses and fungi. Used for all equipment contacting the skin. Between 1:10 and 1:100 dilution of water and bleach.
High level: Destroys all forms of microorganisms except certain bacterial spores. Used on all reusable equipment that may come in contact with mucous membranes. Immerse in EPA approved chemical sterilization products for 10-45 seconds or hot water > 176 F for 30 minutes.
Sterilization: Destroys all microorganisms and is required for all contaminated invasive instruments. Performed in an autoclave and can take between 6-10 hours.
What color does a gram positive bacteria stain?
What color does a gram negative bacteria stain?
What are the three types of bacteria?
What diseases can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route?
- Hepatitis A
- Food poisoning
Define normal flora.
Organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease.
What are the modes of transmission of infectious diseases.
What are the phases of the infectous process?
- Latent period
- Communicable period
- Incubation period
- Window phase
- Disease period
What are the factors affecting disease transmission?
- Mode of entry
- Number of organisms transmitted
- Host resistance
Define passive immunity.
A newborn's protection against disease that results from the mother's transferring some of her antibodies to the fetus.
Define active immunity.
Protection against disease developed after birth as a result of a direct exposure to the disease.