Brain and Behavior

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Brain and Behavior
2010-02-27 13:00:02
Nervous system

Chapter 3, 4, 5
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  1. Bipolar neuron
    Neuron with one axon and one dendrite
  2. Dendritic spine
    Protrusion from a dendrite that greatly increase its surface area and is the usual point of dendritic contact with axons
  3. Axon hillock
    Juncture of soma and axon where the action point of dendritic contact with axons
  4. Synapse
    Gap between one neuron and another neuron, usually between an end foot of the axon of one neuron and a dendritic spine of the other neuron
  5. End foot
    Knob at the tip of an axon that conveys information to other neurons also; also called terminal button
  6. Somatosensory neuron
    Brain cell that brings sensory information from they body into the spinal cord
  7. Soma (Cell body)
    Core region of the cell containing the nucleus and other organelles for making proteins
  8. Dendrite
    branch of a neuron that consist of an extension of the cell membrane, thus increasing the area of the cell
  9. Interneuron
    Association neuron interposed between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron; neurons constitue most of the neurons of the brain
  10. Pyramidal Cell
    Distinctive neuron found in the cerebral cortex
  11. Purkinje cell
    Distinctive neuron found in the cerebellum
  12. Glial cell
    Nervous system cell that provides insulation, nutrients, and support, as well as aiding in the repair of neurons
  13. Tumor
    Mass of new tissue that grows uncontrolled and independent of surrounding structures
  14. Ependymal cell
    Glial cell that makes and secretes cerebral spinal fluid; found on the walls of the ventricles of the brain
  15. Hydrocephalus
    Buildup of pressure in the brain and swelling of the head caused if the flow of CFS is blocked; can result in retardation
  16. Astrocyte
    Glial cell with a star-shaped appearance that provides structural support to neurons in the central nervous system and transports substances between neurons and capillaries
  17. Microglial cell
    form of glial cell that scavenges debris in the nervous system
  18. Myelin
    Glial coating that surrounds axons in the central and peripheral nervous system
  19. Oligodendroglial
    Gilal cell in the central nervous system that myelinates axons.
  20. Schwann cell
    Glial cell in the peripheral nervous system that forms the myelin on sensory and motor axons
  21. Multiple sclerosis
    Nervous system disorder that results from the loss of myelin around neurons.
  22. Huntington's chorea
    Autosomal genetic disorder that results in motor and cognitive disturbances; caused by an increase in the number of CAG repeats on chromosome 4
  23. Down's syndrome
    Chromosomal abnormality resulting in mental retardation and other abnormalities, usually caused by an extra chromosome
  24. Types of Glial cells
    • Ependymal cell- small, secretes cerebrospinal fluid
    • Astrocyte- star shaped nutritive and support function
    • Microglial cell- mesodermally derived; defensive function
    • Oligondendroglial cell- forms myelin around axons in brain and spinal cord.
  25. Mitochondrion
    structure that gathers, stores, and releases energy
  26. Lysosomes
    Sacs containing enzymes that break down wastes
  27. Golgi body
    Membranous structure that packages protein molecules for transport
  28. Microfilaments
    Threadlike fibers making up much of the cell's "skeleton"
  29. Myelin Sheath
    Similar to a Swan cell with it fatty composition acts as a protective covering for axons
  30. Brain activating systems
    • Acetylecholine (affects memory)
    • Cholenergic; Dopaninergic (movement/ pleasure and reward lack of it causes parkinsons disease
    • Serontonergic system (OCD/schizophrenia) Noradrengic
  31. 3 types of neurotransmitters
    • 1. small molecule; acetylcholine
    • 2. Amines; Epinephrine(adrenaline) Humans use
    • 3. Norepinephrine(noradrenaline), Serotonin, Dopamine
  32. Neurotransmitter are removed from synapse
    • 1. Diffuse
    • 2. Dissolve
    • 3. Reuptake
  33. EEG
    Reads brain waves
  34. Habituation
    Types of learning whereby a stimulus becomes less pronounced at the synaptic level
  35. DNA
    genetic material that makes up our chromosome
  36. Autoimmune disease
    Occurs when the body loses the ability to distinguish between good and bad cells
  37. Lou Gehrig's Disease(ALS)
    Loss of the ability to walk and talk; due to the loss of motor neurons that die
  38. Depolarization
    Occurs when neurons recieve incoming ion and adjust the action potential between the two
  39. Voltage gradient
    differences in electrical charge between two area dopamine
  40. Neuropeptides
    chemical involved with DNA
  41. Dominant
    gene characteristic will take over in place of a recessive gene
  42. Resting potential
    Electrical charge across the cell membrane in the absence of stimulation; a store of energy produced by a greater negative charge on the intracellular side relative to the extracellular side.
  43. Homozygous
    Having two identical alleles for a trait.
  44. Heterozygous
    Having two different alleles for the same trait.
  45. Wild type
    Refers to a normal (most common in a population) phenotype or genotype.
  46. Mutation
    Alteration of an allele that yields a different version of that allele.
  47. Gate
    Protein embedded in a cell membrane that allows substances to pass through the membrane on some occasions but not on others.
  48. Channel
    Opening in a protein embedded in the cell membrane that allows the passage of ions.
  49. Pump
    Protein in the cell membrane that actively transports a substance across the membrane
  50. Transcription and Translation
    In protein synthesis, a strand of DNA is transcribed into mRNA. Each sequence of three bases in the mRNA strand (a codon) encodes one amino acid. Directed by the codons, the amino acids link together to form a polypeptide chain. The amino acids illustrated are tryptophan (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), glycine (Gly), and serine (Ser).
  51. Multiple sclerosis
    Nervous system disorder that results from the loss of myelin (glial-cell covering) around neurons.
  52. Function of Astrocytes
    Astrocyte processes attach to neurons and to blood vessels to provide support between different structures in the brain, stimulate the cells on blood vessels to form tight junctions and so form the blood–brain barrier, and transport chemicals excreted by neurons to blood vessels.
  53. Hydrocephalus
    Buildup of pressure in the brain and swelling of the head caused if the flow of CSF is blocked; can result in retardation.
  54. Tay-Sachs disease
    Inherited birth defect caused by the loss of genes that encode the enzyme necessary for breaking down certain fatty substances; appears 4 to 6 months after birth and results in retardation, physical changes, and death by about age 5.
  55. Concentration gradient
    Differences in concentration of a substance among regions of a container that allows the substance to diffuse from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  56. Node of Ranvier
    The part of an axon that is not covered by myelin.
  57. Excitatory postsynaptic potential
    Brief depolarization of a neuron membrane in response to stimulation, making the neuron more likely to produce an action potential.
  58. Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
    Brief hyperpolarization of a neuron membrane in response to stimulation, making the neuron less likely to produce an action potential.
  59. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical released by a neuron onto a target with an excitatory or inhibitory effect.
  60. Epinephrine
    Chemical messenger that acts as a hormone to mobilize the body for fight or flight during times of stress and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
  61. Norepinephrine
    Neurotransmitter found in the brain and in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
  62. Cholinergic neuron
    Neuron that uses acetylcholine as its main neurotransmitter
  63. Nicotinic ACh receptor
    Ionotropic receptor at which acetylcholine and the drug nicotine act as ligands to activate the flow of ions through the receptor pore.
  64. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Behavioral disorder characterized by compulsively repeated acts (such as hand washing) and repetitive, often unpleasant, thoughts (obsessions).