A&P Chapter 5: Integumentary System

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Krystlburton
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A&P Chapter 5: Integumentary System
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2011-03-23 01:29:59
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Definitions, Disorders and Facts pertaining to the Integumentary System
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  1. Define: Kerationcytes
    Keratin producing cells that allow the skin to have its protective effect.
  2. Define: Melanocytes
    The spider-shaped cells that produce melanin, a dark pigment.
  3. Define: Merkel Cells
    Spiked-like hemisphere cell important for touch sensation.
  4. Define: Langerhan's cells
    Star-shaped macrophages that help activate our immune system.
  5. Fact: Skin accounts for 7% of the body weight (9-11 lbs). So for every 100 lbs = 7%
    • For example:
    • A 300 lbs woman has how much skin fat?

    21%
  6. Where can Thick Skin be found? What's the extra layer in Thick Skin?
    • Found on your hands and soles of your feet.
    • Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)
  7. Layers of the Skin (Top-to-Bottom)
    • 1. Stratum Corneum
    • 2. Stratum Granulosum
    • 3. Stratum Spinosum
    • 4. Statum Basale
  8. Stratum Basale:
    Lower most layer where Melanocytes and Merkel Cells are found
  9. Stratum Corneum:
    Upper most layer comprised of dead cells
  10. Stratum Granulosum:
    Layer below Corneum and above Spinosum where keratinocytes can be found releasing granules of lipids and keratin.
  11. Stratum Spinosum:
    Layer above Basale where Langerhan's cells and Keratinocytes can be found.
  12. Layers of the Dermis
    Papillary: Thin superficial layer made up of areolar connective tissue

    Reticular: Deeper and thicker layer made up of dense irregular connective tissue
  13. Protein: Melanin
    • (Yellow, redish-brown, black)
    • Comes from melanocytes.
    • Synthesized by Tyrosinase
  14. Protein: Carotene
    • (Yellow to Orange)
    • Comes from pigments in plants we eat and accumulates in fatty tissue of the hypodermis.
  15. Protein: Hemoglobin
    • (Pinkish)
    • Comes from the color of oxygenated blood
  16. Two Types of Sweat Glands
    Eccrine- A coiled gland that sits below the surface of the skin and secretes sweat from a long tubular structure

    Aprocrine- Larger sweat glands that secrete sweat into the hair follicles
  17. Define: Sebaceous (oil) glands
    Secrete an oily secretion called Sebum which empties into the hair follice and skin pores to soften the skin and hair and reduce water loss
  18. Functions of the Integument
    • Chemical Barrier
    • Physical/ Mechanical Barrier
    • Biological Barrier
    • Body Temperature Regulation
    • Cutaneous Sensation (Exteroceptors)
    • Metabolic Functions
    • Blood Reservior
    • Excretion
  19. Vellus Hair:
    • Soft, fine and usually short.
    • Colorless
    • Gives the impression of "hairlesss skin"
    • Located: On face, chest and back
  20. Terminal Hair:
    • Longer, coarser and thicker
    • Located: Scalp, pubic and axillary
  21. Hirsutism B:

    An excess growth of terminal hair in locations where hair growth in women usually is minimal or absent. Such as the face, chest, stomach, back, upper thighs, and upper arms.
  22. Hypertrichosis:
    An excess growth of terminal hair and the vellus hair on the face, chest, stomach, back, upper thighs, and upper arms becomes dark. Also known as "WOLF"
  23. Alopecia:
    Is thinning or a balding of the scalp that can be seen in both men and women. Can be caused by: Acutely High Fever, Surgery, Severe emotional trauma, certain drugs, protein-deficiency, lacation and auto-immune disease.
  24. Male Pattern Baldness:
    Is a genectically determined sex-influenced condition
  25. Harlequin Ichthyosis:
    • An inherited skin disorder which causes the thickening of the keratin skin layer in fetal skin. 1 in a half million babies are born with thid disorder. Ryan Gonzales who survived by using Acutane.
  26. Vitiligo:
    Skin pigmentation disorder where melanocytes die creating light patches on the skin. Stress is a factor that can cause it to spread.
  27. Nevus B:
    A rare genetic condition where there is an overproduction of melanocytes creating dark patches of skin.
  28. Xeroderma Pigmentosum B:

    A rare genetic condition in which DNA repair processes are defective causing susceptibility to chromosome breaks and cancers when exposed to UV light. Have to stay covered up when going outside.
  29. Port Wine Stain:
    Birth mark caused by an abnormal collection of dermal blood vessels.
  30. Rosacea:
    • Flushing of the skin as dermal blood vessels become engorged which can eventually disfigure the skin. Causes redding of tissue (rose color), can cause reconstruction of the face.
  31. Acne:
    Caused by the increase of oil production and the activation of the sebaceous glands during adolescence.
  32. Dermatitis B:
    • An inflammatory response that can lead to itching and scratching in response to an external irritant
  33. Irritations:
    Generally associated with external agitations.
  34. Psoriasis B:
    • Genectic trait taht leads to an autoimmune attack that causes severe skin flaking (scales) and lesions of the skin (plagues).
  35. Eczema:
    Patches of skin become rough and inflamed leading to itching and bleeding.
  36. Skin Cancers and Tumors:
    Overgrowth of skin cells.
  37. Warts:
    Sheep Virus
    Benign cancers that result from virus infection. e.g. Herpes and HPV (Dede the "Tree Man")
  38. Moles:
    Benign cancers that emerge on the skin.
  39. Basal Cell Carcinoma:
    Cells of the stratum basale rapidly divide. Starts from the bottom and spreads upward (extends out).
  40. Squamous Cell Carcinoma:
    Keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. Resulting in a crating effect.
  41. Melanoma:
    Cancer of the melanocytes. e.g. Freckles
  42. Types of Epithelioma:
    • Adenoids Cysticum

    Calcification

    Pseudoepitheliomatous
  43. Carcinoma of the Parotid:
    • Swelling of the Salivary Glands.
    • Partoid Gland- Secretes saliva
  44. Cheloids or Keloids:
    Overgrowth of fibrous tissues or scars that can appear after an injury to the skin. Affects the earlobes, upper back, shoulder and chest. And can incorpate pigmentation (Melanoocytes)
  45. Trophic Ulcers:
    Localized breakdown and ulceration due to interference in blood supply. Creates what is known as a "bed sore"
  46. Fungal Infections:
    Various fungi are capable of infecting the skin leading to irritation, inflammation, swelling and skin loss. e.g. Athlete's Foot, Ringworm, Yeast Infection and Thrush
  47. Degree of Burns
    • 1st degree: Only the epidermis (Sunburn)
    • 2nd degree: Epidermis and upper region of the Dermis (Causing Blisters)
    • 3rd degree: Burns the entire region of the skin (Affecting the Hypodermis)
  48. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Syndrome (TENS)

    An immune-complex mediated disorder that causes large sheets of epidermis and the underlying dermal surface to become necrotic.
  49. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)
    An inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucous membranes that is triggered by an allergic reaction.
  50. Supernumerary
    • Having more than the typical number of body structures. Digits- Fingers and Toes
    • Breasts- The production of extra mammary tissue in-between the mammary and axillary regions
  51. Types of Hyaline Cartilage:
    • Articular Cartilage: Ends of most bones
    • Costal Cartilage: Connects the ribs to the sternum
    • Respiratory Cartilage: Forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces respiratory passageways
    • Nasal Cartilage: Supports the external nose
  52. Elastic Cartilage:
    Similar to hyaline except that it has elastic fibers. Found in the ear and epiglottis
  53. Fibrocartilage:
    An intermediate between hyaline and elastic that are highly compressible and have great tensile strength. Found in the cartilages of the knee (menisci) and between the vertebrae disk
  54. Fact: 206 bones in the Human Adult
  55. Axial Skeleton consists of:
    • Skull
    • Hyoid (Speech and Swallowing)
    • Vertebral Column
    • Rib Cage
  56. Appendicular skeleton consists of:
    • The Upper Extremities
    • Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna and the Hand
    • The Lower Extremities
    • Pelvic Girdle, Femur, Tibia, Fibula and the Foot
  57. Foramen
    An opening in the bone that provides passageway for nerves and blood vessels
  58. Fossa
    A shallow depression in the bone
  59. Sulcus
    A groove or furrow
  60. Meatus
    A canal or long tube-like passageway
  61. Fissure
    A narrow slit
  62. Sinus
    A cavity in a bone
  63. Condyle
    A rounded knuckle-like eminence on a bone that articulates with another bone
  64. Tuberosity
    A large roughened process where muscle may anchor
  65. Tubercle
    A small rounded process
  66. Trochanter
    A very large process on a bone
  67. Crest
    A narrow ridge of bone
  68. Spine
    A sharp slender process
  69. Spongy Bone
    A honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces, trabeculae, making up the inside of the bone
  70. Compact Bone
    Smooth dense bone that makes up the outer bone
  71. Diaphysis
    The neck or shaft of a long bone
  72. Epiphysis
    The ends of long bones
  73. Metaphysis/Epiphyseal plate
    The area at which bone growth occurs
  74. Medullary Cavity
    An tubular space in long bones where yellow marrow can be found
  75. Endosteum
    Connective tissue that lines the interior of the diaphysis and the trabecula of spongy bone
  76. Yellow Marrow
    Fat marrow
  77. Red Marrow
    Hematopoetic marrow
  78. Periosteum
    Connective tissue that surround the outer surface of bones
  79. Articular Cartilage
    The hyaline cartilage that surrounds the ends of bones (Epiphysis)
  80. Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
    Secures the peristeum to the underlying bone
  81. Osteocytes
    Spider-like cells found in bone
  82. Osteoblasts
    Cells that build bone
  83. Osteoclasts
    Cells that breakdown bone
  84. Osteon
    Structural unit of compact bone
  85. Osteogenesis
    The process during development that forms the bony skeleton
  86. Ossification
    Is the process that produces bone
  87. Intramembranous Ossification
    The process by which flat bones of the Skull and the Clavicle are made
  88. Endochondral Ossification
    • The process by which all other bones are made whereby Hyaline Cartilage skeleton is replaced by bone. Found in Articular Cartilage and ends of Epiphyseal Plate
  89. Remodeling and repair
    Process by which bones maintain homeostasis even after adulthood
  90. Bone Growth
    Occurs after the formation of the bony skeleton until early adulthood
  91. Growth Hormone
    Hormone most responsible for bone growth produced in the Pituitary
  92. Testosterone and Estrogen
    Horomone(s) responsible for promoting growth spurts and the feminization and masculinzation of the bone produced by sex organs
  93. Calcitonin
    Stimulates calcium deposit in bone produced by the Thyroid similar to Osteoblast
  94. Parathyroid Hormone
    Stimulates Osteoclasts to breakdown bone produced by the PT
  95. Gigantism
    Overproduction of Growth Hormone leads to imcreases in bone growth

    Andre Rene Roussimoff, wrestler who suffered from Gigantism
  96. Dwarfism
    Underproduction of Growth Hormone
  97. Osteomalacia
    When calcium-salt deposits are not being made even though osteoids are being produced.
  98. Rickets
    When cartilage in the epiphyseal plates are not being calcified leading to bowed legs and deformities in the skull, pelvis and rib cage.
  99. Osteoporosis
    Disease where bone resorption outpaces bone deposit. Affecting the vertebral column
  100. Paget's Disease
    Caused by excessive bone deposit and resorption whereby there is a higher ratio of spongy bone to compact bone
  101. Spiral Fracture
    When the bone is twisted
  102. Compact Fracture
    Bone is compacted with another bone or with itself
  103. Compression
    When bone is broken into several pieces
  104. Oblique
    Bone brakes at an angle other than 90 degrees
  105. Agromegaly
    When abnormal tissue growth continues to occur after bone growth stops. Also known for the squaring of the head and jaw)
  106. Local Gigantism or Localized Gigantism
    When it affects only one area of the body such as the feet or thumb
  107. Gigantiform Cementoma
    Caused by excessive bone deposit leading to cancerous growth of the Maxilla and/or Mandible. Can be fatal if tumor grows to the extent of blocking all air passageways.
  108. Treachers-Collins Syndrome
    An autosomal dominant gene disorder that affects 1st and 2nd arch structures of the zygomatic and mandible. Effects the ears which may cause deafness and mental retardation
  109. Crouzon Sydrome
    Genetic disorder of chromosome 10 that is diagnosed in infancy by the early fusion of the bones of the skull causing a misshapen head which can push the brain down and obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid as well cause the nose and upper jaw to appear suken in and the eyes may appear to pop out. "Owling Effect"
  110. Cleft Palate and Malformation of Nasal and Maxillary Region
    Cleft palate is where the formation of the nasopalatine region does not complete or does not occur either naturally or due to a genetic disorder
  111. Proteus Syndrome
    A rare hereditary disorder that is characterized by multiple lesions of the lymph glands, overgrowth of one side of the body, an abnormally large head (macrocephaly), partial gigantism of the feet and darkened spots or moles (nevi) on the skin
  112. What type of burn is this?
    1st Degree Burn
  113. What type of burn is this?
    2nd Degree Burn
  114. What type of burn is this?
    3rd Degree Burn

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