Definitions, Disorders and Facts pertaining to the Integumentary System
Keratin producing cells that allow the skin to have its protective effect.
The spider-shaped cells that produce melanin, a dark pigment.
Define: Merkel Cells
Spiked-like hemisphere cell important for touch sensation.
Define: Langerhan's cells
Star-shaped macrophages that help activate our immune system.
Fact: Skin accounts for 7% of the body weight (9-11 lbs). So for every 100 lbs = 7%
A 300 lbs woman has how much skin fat?
Where can Thick Skin be found? What's the extra layer in Thick Skin?
Found on your hands and soles of your feet.
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer)
Layers of the Skin (Top-to-Bottom)
1. Stratum Corneum
2. Stratum Granulosum
3. Stratum Spinosum
4. Statum Basale
Lower most layer where Melanocytes and Merkel Cells are found
Upper most layer comprised of dead cells
Layer below Corneum and above Spinosum where keratinocytes can be found releasing granules of lipids and keratin.
Layer above Basale where Langerhan's cells and Keratinocytes can be found.
Layers of the Dermis
Papillary: Thin superficial layer made up of areolar connective tissue
Reticular: Deeper and thicker layer made up of dense irregular connective tissue
(Yellow, redish-brown, black)
Comes from melanocytes.
Synthesized by Tyrosinase
(Yellow to Orange)
Comes from pigments in plants we eat and accumulates in fatty tissue of the hypodermis.
Comes from the color of oxygenated blood
Two Types of Sweat Glands
Eccrine- A coiled gland that sits below the surface of the skin and secretes sweat from a long tubular structure
Aprocrine- Larger sweat glands that secrete sweat into the hair follicles
Define: Sebaceous (oil) glands
Secrete an oily secretion called Sebum which empties into the hair follice and skin pores to soften the skin and hair and reduce water loss
Functions of the Integument
Physical/ Mechanical Barrier
Body Temperature Regulation
Cutaneous Sensation (Exteroceptors)
Soft, fine and usually short.
Gives the impression of "hairlesss skin"
Located: On face, chest and back
Longer, coarser and thicker
Located: Scalp, pubic and axillary
An excess growth of terminal hair in locations where hair growth in women usually is minimal or absent. Such as the face, chest, stomach, back, upper thighs, and upper arms.
An excess growth of terminal hair and the vellus hair on the face, chest, stomach, back, upper thighs, and upper arms becomes dark. Also known as "WOLF"
Is thinning or a balding of the scalp that can be seen in both men and women. Can be caused by: Acutely High Fever, Surgery, Severe emotional trauma, certain drugs, protein-deficiency, lacation and auto-immune disease.
Male Pattern Baldness:
Is a genectically determined sex-influenced condition
An inherited skin disorder which causes the thickening of the keratin skin layer in fetal skin. 1 in a half million babies are born with thid disorder. Ryan Gonzales who survived by using Acutane.
Skin pigmentation disorder where melanocytes die creating light patches on the skin. Stress is a factor that can cause it to spread.
A rare genetic condition where there is an overproduction of melanocytes creating dark patches of skin.
Xeroderma Pigmentosum B:
A rare genetic condition in which DNA repair processes are defective causing susceptibility to chromosome breaks and cancers when exposed to UV light. Have to stay covered up when going outside.
Port Wine Stain:
Birth mark caused by an abnormal collection of dermal blood vessels.
Flushing of the skin as dermal blood vessels become engorged which can eventually disfigure the skin. Causes redding of tissue (rose color), can cause reconstruction of the face.
Caused by the increase of oil production and the activation of the sebaceous glands during adolescence.
An inflammatory response that can lead to itching and scratching in response to an external irritant
Generally associated with external agitations.
Genectic trait taht leads to an autoimmune attack that causes severe skin flaking (scales) and lesions of the skin (plagues).
Patches of skin become rough and inflamed leading to itching and bleeding.
Skin Cancers and Tumors:
Overgrowth of skin cells.
Benign cancers that result from virus infection. e.g. Herpes and HPV (Dede the "Tree Man")
Benign cancers that emerge on the skin.
Basal Cell Carcinoma:
Cells of the stratum basale rapidly divide. Starts from the bottom and spreads upward (extends out).
Squamous Cell Carcinoma:
Keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. Resulting in a crating effect.
Cancer of the melanocytes. e.g. Freckles
Types of Epithelioma:
Carcinoma of the Parotid:
Swelling of the Salivary Glands.
Partoid Gland- Secretes saliva
Cheloids or Keloids:
Overgrowth of fibrous tissues or scars that can appear after an injury to the skin. Affects the earlobes, upper back, shoulder and chest. And can incorpate pigmentation (Melanoocytes)
Localized breakdown and ulceration due to interference in blood supply. Creates what is known as a "bed sore"
Various fungi are capable of infecting the skin leading to irritation, inflammation, swelling and skin loss. e.g. Athlete's Foot, Ringworm, Yeast Infection and Thrush
Degree of Burns
1st degree: Only the epidermis (Sunburn)
2nd degree: Epidermis and upper region of the Dermis (Causing Blisters)
3rd degree: Burns the entire region of the skin (Affecting the Hypodermis)
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Syndrome (TENS)
An immune-complex mediated disorder that causes large sheets of epidermis and the underlying dermal surface to become necrotic.
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)
An inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucous membranes that is triggered by an allergic reaction.
Having more than the typical number of body structures. Digits- Fingers and Toes
Breasts- The production of extra mammary tissue in-between the mammary and axillary regions
Types of Hyaline Cartilage:
Articular Cartilage: Ends of most bones
Costal Cartilage: Connects the ribs to the sternum
Respiratory Cartilage: Forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces respiratory passageways
Nasal Cartilage: Supports the external nose
Similar to hyaline except that it has elastic fibers. Found in the ear and epiglottis
An intermediate between hyaline and elastic that are highly compressible and have great tensile strength. Found in the cartilages of the knee (menisci) and between the vertebrae disk
Fact: 206 bones in the Human Adult
Axial Skeleton consists of:
Hyoid (Speech and Swallowing)
Appendicular skeleton consists of:
The Upper Extremities
Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna and the Hand
The Lower Extremities
Pelvic Girdle, Femur, Tibia, Fibula and the Foot
An opening in the bone that provides passageway for nerves and blood vessels
A shallow depression in the bone
A groove or furrow
A canal or long tube-like passageway
A narrow slit
A cavity in a bone
A rounded knuckle-like eminence on a bone that articulates with another bone
A large roughened process where muscle may anchor
A small rounded process
A very large process on a bone
A narrow ridge of bone
A sharp slender process
A honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces, trabeculae, making up the inside of the bone
Smooth dense bone that makes up the outer bone
The neck or shaft of a long bone
The ends of long bones
The area at which bone growth occurs
An tubular space in long bones where yellow marrow can be found
Connective tissue that lines the interior of the diaphysis and the trabecula of spongy bone
Connective tissue that surround the outer surface of bones
The hyaline cartilage that surrounds the ends of bones (Epiphysis)
Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
Secures the peristeum to the underlying bone
Spider-like cells found in bone
Cells that build bone
Cells that breakdown bone
Structural unit of compact bone
The process during development that forms the bony skeleton
Is the process that produces bone
The process by which flat bones of the Skull and the Clavicle are made
The process by which all other bones are made whereby Hyaline Cartilage skeleton is replaced by bone. Found in Articular Cartilage and ends of Epiphyseal Plate
Remodeling and repair
Process by which bones maintain homeostasis even after adulthood
Occurs after the formation of the bony skeleton until early adulthood
Hormone most responsible for bone growth produced in the Pituitary
Testosterone and Estrogen
Horomone(s) responsible for promoting growth spurts and the feminization and masculinzation of the bone produced by sex organs
Stimulates calcium deposit in bone produced by the Thyroid similar to Osteoblast
Stimulates Osteoclasts to breakdown bone produced by the PT
Overproduction of Growth Hormone leads to imcreases in bone growth
Andre Rene Roussimoff, wrestler who suffered from Gigantism
Underproduction of Growth Hormone
When calcium-salt deposits are not being made even though osteoids are being produced.
When cartilage in the epiphyseal plates are not being calcified leading to bowed legs and deformities in the skull, pelvis and rib cage.
Disease where bone resorption outpaces bone deposit. Affecting the vertebral column
Caused by excessive bone deposit and resorption whereby there is a higher ratio of spongy bone to compact bone
When the bone is twisted
Bone is compacted with another bone or with itself
When bone is broken into several pieces
Bone brakes at an angle other than 90 degrees
When abnormal tissue growth continues to occur after bone growth stops. Also known for the squaring of the head and jaw)
Local Gigantism or Localized Gigantism
When it affects only one area of the body such as the feet or thumb
Caused by excessive bone deposit leading to cancerous growth of the Maxilla and/or Mandible. Can be fatal if tumor grows to the extent of blocking all air passageways.
An autosomal dominant gene disorder that affects 1st and 2nd arch structures of the zygomatic and mandible. Effects the ears which may cause deafness and mental retardation
Genetic disorder of chromosome 10 that is diagnosed in infancy by the early fusion of the bones of the skull causing a misshapen head which can push the brain down and obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid as well cause the nose and upper jaw to appear suken in and the eyes may appear to pop out. "Owling Effect"
Cleft Palate and Malformation of Nasal and Maxillary Region
Cleft palate is where the formation of the nasopalatine region does not complete or does not occur either naturally or due to a genetic disorder
A rare hereditary disorder that is characterized by multiple lesions of the lymph glands, overgrowth of one side of the body, an abnormally large head (macrocephaly), partial gigantism of the feet and darkened spots or moles (nevi) on the skin