Biology Exam 1
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How are Science and Technology different from each other?
Science: used to "Understand Nature"
Technology: used to "Apply Knowledge"
How do Science and Technology "depend" on each other?
- Science is used to make DISCOVERIES
- Technology is used to make INVENTIONS
*More discoveries equal greater inventions, we discover stuff through inventions
What drives science?
What drives Technology?
Wants and Needs
What compounds are "organic molecules?"
- Compounds that contain hydrogen-carbon bonds.
Hydrophillic Macromolecule Property
"Water loving" (Dissolves in water)
Hydrophobic Macromolecule Property
"Water fearing" (Does NOT dissolve in water)
Macromolecules properties depend on:
Size and Shape
Macromolecules (Definition and explanation of structure)
Def: Large Organic Compounds/Molecules
- Creation- remove water + dehydration
- Breaking- Add water (Hydrolysis)
Classes of Macromolecules
Types of Carbohydrates (Sugars)
- 1. Monosaccharide - one sugar
- 2. Polysaccharide- more than one sugar unit together
Protein Polymer (def)
Long chain of Amino Acids (AA-AA-AA-AA)
- Signals (Hormones)
- Defense (Antibodies)
- (They build on each other)
- 1. Primary level: Amino Acid Chain (polypeptide)
- 2. Secondary Level: Polypeptide chain becomes "telephone wire" (alphahelix) or "mountains" (Beta sheets)
- 3. Tertiary Level: combination of alphahelix and beta sheets
- 4. Quartnery level: combining tertiary shapes together 88
Unsaturated Lipids Qualities
- "Kinks" in structure (not tightly packed)
- Liquid at room temp
- Healthy Fats (Veggie oil, Canola Oil, Olive Oil)
Saturated Fats Qualities
- "No Kinks" in structure (tightly packed)
- Solid at room temp
- Unhealthy (eggs, ice cream, steaks, butter)
What is a Nucleic Acid?
A Polymer of Nucleotides
Nucleotide Diagram with 3 components
2 Types of Nucleic Acid
- DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
- RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
DNA Qualities and 4 Bases
- Shown as "2 strands"
- 4 Bases:
- 1. Adenine
- 2. Guanine
- 3. Cytosine
*4. Thymine (different from RNA)
RNA Qualities and 4 Bases
- Shown as "1 strand"
- 4 Bases:
- 1. Adenine
- 3. Cytosine
*4. Uracil (Different from DNA)
- Form of Discovery Science
- "Specific to General" (Specific observations to general conclusions)
- Ex. an individual with black and white strips is a zebra---All zebras have black and white stripes
- Form of Hypothesis Science
- "General to Specific"
- Hypothesis --> Experiment
Limitations of Science
- "Anything that cannot be tested, proved, disproved"
- B. Proving supernatural
- C. Faith or Belief
"The study of life"
Cell (meaning and description)
- "Fundamental unit of life"
- 1. Enclosed in membraine with passage
- 2. DNA- genetic information
- 3. Two types:
- -Prokaryotic- simple (very diverse, bacteria)
- -Eukaryotic- complex (plants, people, mushrooms)
Hypothesis Science Format/Steps
- 1. Observation (usually from discovery science) leads to wanting an explanation
- 2. Hypothesis (Proposed explanation) must be testable and falsifiable.
- 3. Experiment/Test:
- Control group- no change; used to compare
- Experimental group- change of simple variable
- Conclusion- test falsifies or does not falsify hypothesis
Hypothesis must meet 2 conditions:
Testable and Falsifiable
- Broad in scope
- -explains several observations
- -supported by large amounts of evidence
- -generates new hypothesis
2 general groups of Microscopes
- "Describes" nature
- Uses Inductive Reasoning
- based on Observations and measurements
- "Explains" Nature
- Uses Deductive Reasoning
- Regulation of internal environment (PH and temp)
- Ex. "Sweating in human beings)
What Macromolecule are Enzymes?
What 3 Letters Do ALL Enzymes End In?
What Do Enzymes Do?
- Function is to speed up (Catalyze) reaction.
- control how fast "reactants" become "products"
All Enzyme reactions begin with__ and end with __?
A molecule upon which an enzyme acts
Where do substrated bind to enzymes?
Enzymes at Cellular Level are "Substrate Specific" what does that mean?
Enzymes are specific to substrates, if they can't fit, they will not go into enzyme
What is Denaturation?
When Enzyme breaks down losing shape and function due to temp. too high or PH incorrect
What is an Enzyme Inhibitor?
Chemical that interferes with enzyme activity
2 types of Enzyme Inhibitors
- Resembles substrate and competes for active site
- Bind to enzyme but they bind at a different site, not active site.
- This changes active site and renders it useless
- Quantity of Products are too high
- Result: Product becomes non-competitive inhibitor
Examples of Inhibitors
- Poisons and chemical warfare
- Penecillin (inhibits bacteria)
What does Prokaryotic mean?
"Before Nucleus" has NO NUCLEUS!
What does Eukaryotic mean?
"True Nucleus" HAS NUCLEUS!
4 Common Things That All Cells Share
- DNA (Genetic info)
- Membrane- used as protection from environment
- Ribosomes-Structures that produce protein
- Cytoplasm- Fluid that internal structures suspend in
What is the function of Ribosomes?
Organism composed of Prokaryotic Cells
Organsims composed of Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Cell Features
- NO NUCLEUS
- NO Internal Organells
- Simple in structure
Prokaryotic Cell "Structures"
- Cell Membrane
- Cell Wall- rigid structure to provide support/ protect membrane
- Nucleoid- region of "loose DNA"
- Cilia- Cell-to-cell communication (how cells identify each other)
- Flagella- Used to move cell, propels cell
Eukaryotic Cell Features
- CONTAINS NUCLEUS
- Complex in structure
- Contains Organelles (organs inside of cells with membranes)
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles
- Endoplasmic Rectulum
- Golgi Apparatus
Organelle with double-membranes with pours/contains DNA
- Organelle that has 2 types
- 1. Smooth ER: produces more membrane, lipids,
2. Rough ER: same as smooth ER but has ribosomes attached and is the only to produce protein
Organelle that recieves packages from ER, labels packages and distributes
- Organells thats a "Recycling Center" of cell
- breaks down components and determines if components are reusable
- Organelle that provides "general maintanence"
- Animal- transports food to lysosome
- Plant- stores water
- Organelle that acts as "Detox Center"
- converts harmful substances into safe material
- Organells with Double Membranes (contains DNA) with ribosomes located in "matrix."
- MAIN FUNCTION- produces energy in cristae, acts as "Power Plant" of all organelles
- Organelle with Double Membranes (contains DNA, Ribosomes located in "Stroma")
- Photosynthesis- converts solar energy into food
What are the Organelles with "Double-Membranes?"
2 Cell Structures of Eurokaryotic Organelles
- Cytoskeleton- "cell skeleton" network of proteins
- Cell Wall- rigid structure of extra support/protection
Cell Membrane Structure and Components
- 1. Phospholipid Bilayer: 2 layers of phosphate and fat
- - Phosphate is hydrophillic
- - lipid is hydrophobic
- 2. Protein- embedded in layer
Cell Membrane Protein Components
- Glycoprotein- used for cell-to-cell communication, carb identification
- Receptors- to send/recieve messages
- Enzymes- catalyze reaction
- Transporter- transport substances
What do Transport Proteins depend on?
Concentration Gradient (must have in order to be transported)
Small Molecule Transportation (explanation)
- Uses "Passive Transport": moves substances from high concentration to low concentration (moving down gradient)
- Strives to reach equlibrium
- NO ENERGY REQUIREMENT
Types of "Passive Transport"
- Diffusion- movement of hydrophobic substances
- Osmosis- diffusion of WATER across semipermiable membrane
3 Types of Osmosis "Tonicity"
- Isotonic- solute concentration is equal between cell and solution (outside of cell)
- Hypotonic- solute concentration of solution (outside of cell) is LOWER than cell
- Hypertonic- solute concentration of solution (outside of cell) is higher than cell
Osmosis "Tonicity" (def)
Ability of solution to make cell Gain or Lose water.
- Uses transport protein and moves hydrophillic substances
- Aquaporins- proteins that move water
Active Transport (explanation)
- Movement is Low to High "against gradient"
- REQUIRES ENERGY
- REQUIRES TRANSPORT PROTEINS
Large Molecule Transportation
- Exocytosis- Exporting out cell (EXIT)
- Endocytosis- Importing into cell (ENTER)
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