Biology Exam 1

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Biology Exam 1
2011-03-22 15:55:59

Biology Exam 1
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  1. How are Science and Technology different from each other?
    Science: used to "Understand Nature"

    Technology: used to "Apply Knowledge"
  2. How do Science and Technology "depend" on each other?
    • Science is used to make DISCOVERIES
    • Technology is used to make INVENTIONS

    *More discoveries equal greater inventions, we discover stuff through inventions
  3. What drives science?
  4. What drives Technology?
    Wants and Needs
  5. What compounds are "organic molecules?"
    • Compounds that contain hydrogen-carbon bonds.
  6. Hydrophillic Macromolecule Property
    "Water loving" (Dissolves in water)
  7. Hydrophobic Macromolecule Property
    "Water fearing" (Does NOT dissolve in water)
  8. Macromolecules properties depend on:
    Size and Shape
  9. Macromolecules (Definition and explanation of structure)
    Def: Large Organic Compounds/Molecules

    • Structure:
    • Creation- remove water + dehydration
    • Breaking- Add water (Hydrolysis)
  10. Classes of Macromolecules
    • Carbs
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
  11. Types of Carbohydrates (Sugars)
    • "Hydrophillic"
    • 1. Monosaccharide - one sugar
    • 2. Polysaccharide- more than one sugar unit together
  12. Protein Polymer (def)
    Long chain of Amino Acids (AA-AA-AA-AA)
  13. Protein Functions
    • Enzymes
    • Transporters
    • Signals (Hormones)
    • Defense (Antibodies)
    • Storage
  14. Protein Shapes
    • (They build on each other)
    • 1. Primary level: Amino Acid Chain (polypeptide)
    • 2. Secondary Level: Polypeptide chain becomes "telephone wire" (alphahelix) or "mountains" (Beta sheets)
    • 3. Tertiary Level: combination of alphahelix and beta sheets
    • 4. Quartnery level: combining tertiary shapes together 88
  15. Lipids (Fats) Functions
    • Energy Storage
    • Insulation
  16. 2 Types of Lipids
    • Unsaturated
    • Saturated
  17. Unsaturated Lipids Qualities
    • "Kinks" in structure (not tightly packed)
    • Liquid at room temp
    • Healthy Fats (Veggie oil, Canola Oil, Olive Oil)
  18. Saturated Fats Qualities
    • "No Kinks" in structure (tightly packed)
    • Solid at room temp
    • Unhealthy (eggs, ice cream, steaks, butter)
  19. What is a Nucleic Acid?
    A Polymer of Nucleotides
  20. Nucleotide Diagram with 3 components
  21. 2 Types of Nucleic Acid
    • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
    • RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
  22. DNA Qualities and 4 Bases
    • Shown as "2 strands"
    • Nitrogenous
    • 4 Bases:
    • 1. Adenine
    • 2. Guanine
    • 3. Cytosine

    *4. Thymine (different from RNA)
  23. RNA Qualities and 4 Bases
    • Shown as "1 strand"
    • Nitrogenous
    • 4 Bases:
    • 1. Adenine
    • 2.Guanine
    • 3. Cytosine

    *4. Uracil (Different from DNA)
  24. Inductive Reasoning
    • Form of Discovery Science
    • "Specific to General" (Specific observations to general conclusions)
    • Ex. an individual with black and white strips is a zebra---All zebras have black and white stripes
  25. Deductive Reasoning
    • Form of Hypothesis Science
    • "General to Specific"
    • Hypothesis --> Experiment
  26. Limitations of Science
    • "Anything that cannot be tested, proved, disproved"
    • A.God
    • B. Proving supernatural
    • C. Faith or Belief
  27. Biology (meaning)
    "The study of life"
  28. Cell (meaning and description)
    • "Fundamental unit of life"
    • 1. Enclosed in membraine with passage
    • 2. DNA- genetic information
    • 3. Two types:
    • -Prokaryotic- simple (very diverse, bacteria)
    • -Eukaryotic- complex (plants, people, mushrooms)
  29. Hypothesis Science Format/Steps
    • 1. Observation (usually from discovery science) leads to wanting an explanation
    • 2. Hypothesis (Proposed explanation) must be testable and falsifiable.
    • 3. Experiment/Test:
    • Control group- no change; used to compare
    • Experimental group- change of simple variable
    • Conclusion- test falsifies or does not falsify hypothesis
  30. Hypothesis must meet 2 conditions:
    Testable and Falsifiable
  31. Theory (explanation)
    • Broad in scope
    • -explains several observations
    • -supported by large amounts of evidence
    • -generates new hypothesis
  32. 2 general groups of Microscopes
    • 1. Light
    • 2. Electron
  33. Discovery Science
    • "Describes" nature
    • Uses Inductive Reasoning
    • based on Observations and measurements
  34. Hypothesis Science
    • "Explains" Nature
    • Uses Deductive Reasoning
  35. Homeostasis (explanation)
    • Regulation of internal environment (PH and temp)
    • Ex. "Sweating in human beings)
  36. What Macromolecule are Enzymes?
  37. What 3 Letters Do ALL Enzymes End In?
  38. What Do Enzymes Do?
    • Function is to speed up (Catalyze) reaction.
    • control how fast "reactants" become "products"
  39. All Enzyme reactions begin with__ and end with __?
    Reactants, Product
  40. Enzyme Substrate
    A molecule upon which an enzyme acts
  41. Where do substrated bind to enzymes?
    Active site
  42. Enzymes at Cellular Level are "Substrate Specific" what does that mean?
    Enzymes are specific to substrates, if they can't fit, they will not go into enzyme
  43. What is Denaturation?
    When Enzyme breaks down losing shape and function due to temp. too high or PH incorrect
  44. What is an Enzyme Inhibitor?
    Chemical that interferes with enzyme activity
  45. 2 types of Enzyme Inhibitors
    • Competitve
    • Non-Competitive
  46. Competitive Inhibitor
    • Resembles substrate and competes for active site
  47. Non-Competitive Inhibitor
    • Bind to enzyme but they bind at a different site, not active site.
    • This changes active site and renders it useless
  48. Feedback Inhibition
    • Quantity of Products are too high
    • Result: Product becomes non-competitive inhibitor
  49. Examples of Inhibitors
    • Poisons and chemical warfare
    • Pesticides
    • Penecillin (inhibits bacteria)
  50. What does Prokaryotic mean?
    "Before Nucleus" has NO NUCLEUS!
  51. What does Eukaryotic mean?
    "True Nucleus" HAS NUCLEUS!
  52. 4 Common Things That All Cells Share
    • DNA (Genetic info)
    • Membrane- used as protection from environment
    • Ribosomes-Structures that produce protein
    • Cytoplasm- Fluid that internal structures suspend in
  53. What is the function of Ribosomes?
    Produce protein
  54. Organism composed of Prokaryotic Cells
  55. Organsims composed of Eukaryotic Cells
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Fungi
  56. Prokaryotic Cell Features
    • NO Internal Organells
    • Simple in structure
  57. Prokaryotic Cell "Structures"
    • Cell Membrane
    • Cell Wall- rigid structure to provide support/ protect membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleoid- region of "loose DNA"
    • Ribosomes
    • Cilia- Cell-to-cell communication (how cells identify each other)
    • Flagella- Used to move cell, propels cell
  58. Eukaryotic Cell Features
    • Complex in structure
    • Contains Organelles (organs inside of cells with membranes)
  59. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles
    • Nucleus
    • Endoplasmic Rectulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuole
    • Peroxisome
    • Mitochandria
    • Chloroplast
  60. Nucleus
    Organelle with double-membranes with pours/contains DNA
  61. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Organelle that has 2 types
    • 1. Smooth ER: produces more membrane, lipids,

    2. Rough ER: same as smooth ER but has ribosomes attached and is the only to produce protein
  62. Golgi Apparatus
    Organelle that recieves packages from ER, labels packages and distributes
  63. Lysosomes
    • Organells thats a "Recycling Center" of cell
    • breaks down components and determines if components are reusable
  64. Vacuole
    • Organelle that provides "general maintanence"
    • Animal- transports food to lysosome
    • Plant- stores water
  65. Peroxisome
    • Organelle that acts as "Detox Center"
    • converts harmful substances into safe material
  66. Mitochandria
    • Organells with Double Membranes (contains DNA) with ribosomes located in "matrix."
    • MAIN FUNCTION- produces energy in cristae, acts as "Power Plant" of all organelles
  67. Chloroplast
    • Organelle with Double Membranes (contains DNA, Ribosomes located in "Stroma")
    • Photosynthesis- converts solar energy into food
  68. What are the Organelles with "Double-Membranes?"
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochandria
    • Chloroplast
  69. 2 Cell Structures of Eurokaryotic Organelles
    • Cytoskeleton- "cell skeleton" network of proteins
    • Cell Wall- rigid structure of extra support/protection
  70. Cell Membrane Structure and Components
    • 1. Phospholipid Bilayer: 2 layers of phosphate and fat
    • - Phosphate is hydrophillic
    • - lipid is hydrophobic
    • 2. Protein- embedded in layer
  71. Cell Membrane Protein Components
    • Glycoprotein- used for cell-to-cell communication, carb identification
    • Receptors- to send/recieve messages
    • Enzymes- catalyze reaction
    • Transporter- transport substances
  72. What do Transport Proteins depend on?
    Concentration Gradient (must have in order to be transported)
  73. Small Molecule Transportation (explanation)
    • Uses "Passive Transport": moves substances from high concentration to low concentration (moving down gradient)
    • Strives to reach equlibrium
  74. Types of "Passive Transport"
    • Diffusion- movement of hydrophobic substances
    • Osmosis- diffusion of WATER across semipermiable membrane
  75. 3 Types of Osmosis "Tonicity"
    • Isotonic- solute concentration is equal between cell and solution (outside of cell)
    • Hypotonic- solute concentration of solution (outside of cell) is LOWER than cell
    • Hypertonic- solute concentration of solution (outside of cell) is higher than cell
  76. Osmosis Tonicity Diagram
  77. Osmosis "Tonicity" (def)
    Ability of solution to make cell Gain or Lose water.
  78. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Uses transport protein and moves hydrophillic substances
    • Aquaporins- proteins that move water
  79. Active Transport (explanation)
    • Movement is Low to High "against gradient"
  80. Large Molecule Transportation
    • Exocytosis- Exporting out cell (EXIT)
    • Endocytosis- Importing into cell (ENTER)