Bio Lecture Ch 40 Vocab

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kickenbugg
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Bio Lecture Ch 40 Vocab
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2011-03-22 17:54:41
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Bio Vocab
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Ch 40 "Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation"
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  1. Internal Environment
    the extracellular fluid surrounding the cells
  2. Interstitial fluid
    • Extracellular fluid that is not contained in the vessels of a circulatory system
    • this bathes every cell in the body
    • cells get their nutrients from this
    • waste is dumped into this
  3. Homeostasis
    • The maintenance of a steady state referring to a constant body temperature
    • must stay within a narrow range of temperatures
    • if it fails, cells can be damaged
  4. Set Point
    • In the regulatory system, it is the threshold to the feedback stimulus
    • "reference point"
  5. Feedback Information
    • In the Regulatory System
    • Information about the relationship between the set point of the system and its current state
  6. Error Signal
    • In the regulatory System
    • any difference between the set point of the system and its current condition
  7. Effectors
    • components of the physiological system
    • these effect changes in the internal environment
  8. Controlled Systems
    • Effectors are these
    • their activities are controlled by commands from the regulatory system
  9. Regulatory System
    • A system that uses feedback information to maintain a physiological function or parameter at an optimal level
    • this obtains, processes, and integrates information
    • it issues commands to controlled systems
  10. Sensors
    • a cell that in responsive to a particular physical or chemical stimulation
    • they provide feedback information that is compared to the set point
  11. Negative Feedback
    • In the regulatory system
    • information that decreases a regulatory response, returning the system to a set point
    • counteracts the influence of the error signal
  12. Positive Feedback
    • In the regulatory system
    • information that amplifies a regulatory response, increasing the deviation of the system from the set point
  13. Feedforward Information
    • In the regulatory system
    • Information that changes the set point of the system
    • predicts the change of the internal environment before it happens
  14. Tissues
    • A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit
    • usually integrated with other tissues to form part of an organ
  15. Types of Tissues (4)
    • Epithelial
    • Muscle
    • Connective
    • Nervous
  16. Epithelial Tissues
    • sheets of densely packed, tightly connected epithelial cells
    • this creates the boundaries between the inside and outside of the body and between body components
  17. Muscle Tissues
    • excitable tissue that can contract through the interactions of actin and myosin
    • one of the four major tissue types
  18. Types of Muscle Tissue (3)
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  19. Skeletal Muscles
    • type of muscle tissue characterized by multinucleated cells containing highly ordered arrangements of actin and myosin microfilaments.
    • "Striated" muscle
    • mostly attach to bones
    • responsible for locomotion and other motions
  20. Cardiac Muscles
    • A type of muscle tissue that makes up, and is responsible for the beating of, the heart
    • characterized by branching cells with single nuclei
    • striated appearance
    • these muscles are interwoven to create strength
  21. Smooth Muscles
    • A type of muscle tissue consisting of sheets of mononucleated cells innervated by the autonomic nerve system
    • responsible for involuntary forces
  22. Connective Tissues
    • a type of tissue that connects/surrounds other tissues
    • its cells are embedded in a collagen-containing matrix
  23. Types of Connective Tissue (4)
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Adipose
    • Blood
  24. Nervous Tissue
    • 2 basic cell types = neurons and glial cells
    • encode information as electrical signals
  25. Organs
    • a body part
    • composed of different tissues integrated to perform a distinct function
    • integrated into organ systems
    • EX-liver, heart, brain, root, leaf
  26. Organ System
    • an interrelated and integrated group of tissues and organs that work together in a physiological function
    • EX-digestive system
  27. Q10
    • a value the compares the rate of a biochemical process or reaction over 10oC temperature ranges.
    • Q10 = 1 means that the process is NOT temp sensitive
    • Q10 = 2, 3 means that the process IS temp. sensitive and the reaction speeds up as temp increases
  28. Ectotherms
    an animal that is DEPENDENT on external heat sources for regulating its body temperature
  29. Endotherms
    An animal that can control its body temperature by expenditure of its own metabolic energy
  30. Heterotherms
    • an animal that regulates its body temperature at a constant level at some times but not others
    • "hibernators"
  31. What can be changed to alter heat exchange to influence body temperature (4)
    • Radiation
    • Convection
    • Conduction
    • Evaporation
  32. Radiation
    The transfer of heat from warmer objects to cooler ones via the exchange of infrared radiation
  33. Convection
    the transfer of heat to or from a surface via a moving stream of air or fluid
  34. Conduction
    the transfer from one object to another through direct contact
  35. Evaporation
    the transfer of water from the liquid to the gaseous phase
  36. Energy Budget
    a quantitative description of all path of energy exchange between an animal and its environment
  37. Thermoneutral Zone
    the range of temperatures over which an endotherm does not have to expend extra energy to thermoregulate
  38. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    The minimum rate of energy turnover in an awake (but resting) bird or mammal that is not expending energy for thermoregulation
  39. Brown Fat
    fat tissue specialized to produce heat
  40. Hypothalamus
    • the part of the brain lying below the thalamus.
    • coordinates water balance, temp regulation, and metabolism
  41. Pyrogens
    • a molecule that produces a rise in body temperature
    • causes a fever
    • produced by an invading pathogen or infection
  42. Hypothermia
    below normal body temperature
  43. Daily Torpor
    an adaptive form of hypothermia used to lower their metabolic rate
  44. Hibernation
    • the inactivity of some animals during winter
    • marked by a drop in body temperature and metabolic rate

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