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rate equation
a mathematical expression for the timedependent profress of a reaction as a funtion of reactant concentration

rate constant (k)
The proprtionality constant between the velocity of a cemical reaction and the concentration(s) of the reactant(s)

ES complex
The enzymesubstrate complex, whose formation is a key component of the MichaelisMenten model of enzyme action. Also known as the Mechaelis complex


k_{2}
the rate constant for the second step of a simple enzymecatalyzed reaction that follows MichaelisMenten kinetics that is the conversion of the ES complex to E + P

k_{1}
the rate constant for the reverse reaction e.g. breakdown of the ES complex to E+S

steady state
a set of conditions in an open system under which the formation and degradation of individual components are balanced such that the system does not change over time

steady state assumption
a condition for the application of the MichaelisMenten model to an enzymatic reaction, in which the concentration of the ES complex remains unchanged over the course of the reaction

K_{M}
for an enzyme that follows the MichaelisMenten model, K_{M}= (k_{1}+ k_{2})/k_{1 }, K_{M }is equal to the substrate concentration at which the reaction velocity is halfmaximal

MichaelisMenten equation
mathmatical expression that desribes the activity of an enzyme in terms of the substrate concentration [S], the enzyme maximal velocity (V_{max}) and its Michaelis constant K_{M}: v_{0}= V_{max}[S]/ (K_{M}+ [S])

v_{0}
initial velocity of an enzymatic reaction

V_{max}
maximal velocity of an enzymatic reaction

enzyme saturation
a state in which the substrate concentration is so high that essentially all the enzyme molecules are in the ES form.

k_{cat} (turnover number)
the catalytic constant for an enzymatic reaction, equivalent to the ratio of the macimal velocity (V_{max}) and the enzyme concentration ([E]_{T})

k_{cat}/K_{M}
the apparent secondorder rate constant for an enzymecatalyzed reaction; it is a measure of an ezyme's catalytic efficiency

diffusion controlled limit
the theoretical maximum rate of an enzymatic reaction in solution, about 10^{8 }to 10^{9 }M^{1}s^{1}

Which rate constant describes the conversion of substrate to product in MichaelisMenten kinetics?
 a. k_{1}
 b. None of these
 c. k_{1}
 d. k_{2}

