Chapter 7 a&p

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Chapter 7 a&p
2011-03-22 20:39:43

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  1. Endosteum
    Thin membran that lines the marrow cavity of a bone.
  2. Osteoblast
    Bone-forming cell.
  3. Resorption
    Loss of substance, such as that of bone or a tooth.
  4. Synovial
    Pertaining to a thick lubricating fluid found in joits, bursae, and tendon shealths; pertaining to a freely movable (diarthrotic) joint.
  5. Synarthrosis
    Immovable joint.
  6. Fontanel
    Membranous area in the infant skull where bone has not yet formed; also spelled fontanelle; "soft spot".
  7. Diaphysis
    Shaft of a long bone.
  8. Arthroscope
    Instrument for examining the interior of the knee and surgically repairing the knee.
  9. Osteoclast
    Cells thta break down bone.
  10. Circumduction
    Circular movvement at a joint.
  11. Arthritis
    Inflammation of the joints.
  12. Bursa
    Small, fluid-filled sac found in an area subject to stress around bones and joints.
  13. Arthroplasty
    Joint replacemet surgery.
  14. Epiphysis
    End of a long bone.
  15. Osteoporosis
    Abnormal loss of bone tissue with tendency to fracture.
  16. Osteon
    Subunit of compact bone, consisting of concentric rings of bone tissue around a central channel; haversian system.
  17. Osteocyte
    Mature bone cell; maintains bone but does not produce new bone tissue.
  18. Amphiarthrosis
    Slightly movable joint.
  19. Osteopenia
    Reduction in bone density to below average levels.
  20. Diarthrosis
    Freely movable joint; synovial joint.
  21. Periosteum
    Connective tissue membrane covering a bone.
  22. Skeleton
    The complete bony framework of the body.
  23. Joint
    Area of junction between two or more bones; articulation.
  24. A long bone has a long, narrow shaft and two irregular ends. What are the scientific names for the shaft and the ends of a long bone?
    The shaft of the long bone is the diaphysis; the end of a long bone is the epiphysis.
  25. What are the two types of osseous (bone) tissue and where is each type found?
    Compact bone makees up the main shaft of long bones and the outer layer of other bones spongy (cancellous) bone makes up the ends of the long bones and the center of other bones.
  26. What are the three types of cells found in bone and what is the role of each?
    The cells found in bone are osteoblasts which build bone tissue, osteocytes which maintain bone, and osteoclats which break down (resorb) bone.
  27. As the embryonic skeleton is converted from cartilage to boe, the interccellular matrix becomes hardened. What compounds are desposited in the matrix to harden it?
    Calcium compounds are deposited in the matrix of bone to harden it.
  28. After birth, long bones continue to grow in length at secondary centers. What are these centers called?
    The epiphyseal plates are the secondary growth centers of a long bone.
  29. Bones have a number of projections, depressions, and holes. What are some functions of these markings?
    The markings on bones help to form joints, serve as points for muscle attachments, and allow passage of nerves and blood vessels.
  30. The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull an the trunk. What bones make up the skeleton of the trunk?
    The skeleton of the trunk consists of the vertebral column and the bones of the thorax, which are the ribs and the sternum.
  31. What are the five regions of the vertebral column?
    1. Cervical Vertebrae, 2. Thoracic Vertebrae, 3. Lumbar Vertebrae, 4. Sacrum, and 5 coccyx.
  32. What division of the skeleton consists of the bones of the shoulder girdle, hip, and extremities?
    The appendicular skeleton consists of bones of the shoulder grindle, hip, and extremities.
  33. What are the three types of oints classified according to the type of material between the adjoining bones?
    The three types of joints classified according to the material between the adjoining bones are fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
  34. What is the most freely movable type of joint?
    A synovial joint or diarthrosis is the most freely movable type of joint.
  35. What is the most common type of joint disorder?
    Arthritis is the most common type of joint disorder.
  36. The shaft of a long bone is called the _____.
  37. Red bone marrow manufactures _____.
    blood cells
  38. Bones are covered by a connective tissue membrane called _____.
  39. Bone matrix is produced by_____.
  40. Tarsals
  41. Cranium
  42. Fibula
  43. Ulna
  44. Humerus
  45. Phalanges
  46. Sacrum
  47. Patella
  48. Pelvis
  49. Scapula
  50. Lumbar Vertebrae
  51. Sacral Vertebrae
  52. Coccyx
  53. Cervical Vertebrae
  54. Thoracic Vertebrae
  55. Coccygeal Verebrae
  56. Cuniforms
  57. Fibula
  58. Lateral Malleolus
  59. tibia
  60. Medial Malleolus
  61. Metatarsal Bones
  62. Talus
  63. Greenstick
  64. Closed Fracture
  65. Impacted Fracture
  66. Open Fracture
  67. Transverse Fracture
  68. Oblique Fracture
  69. Spiral Fracture
  70. Comminuted Fracture
  71. Humerus
  72. Scapula
  73. Coracoid Process
  74. Clavicle
  75. Acromion
  76. Metacarpal
  77. Hamate
  78. trapezoid
  79. Triquetral
  80. Cuneiform
  81. Navicular
  82. Trochlear Notch
  83. Radius
  84. Ulna
  85. Olecranon
  86. Sphenoid
  87. Mastoid
  88. Sella Turcica
  89. Palatine
  90. Transverse Process
  91. Atlas
  92. Iliac
  93. Obturator Foramen
  94. Ischial Tuberosity
  95. Sacrum
  96. What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?
    The atlas.
  97. Osteoarthritis involves _____.
    degeneration of joint cartilage
  98. The medial bone of the fforearm is the _____,
  99. Where is your xiphoid process?
    it's at the base of my sternum.
  100. The shaft of the long bones is called the _____.
  101. You're playing baseball Sunday afternoon and a wild pitch hits you right in the mouth, cracking your jaw. Which bone is damaged?
    your mandible
  102. Parts of which bones form the large knuckles of the hand?
    the metacarpals
  103. T or F. In a greenstick fracture, piecces of bone are splintered or crushed within the arm.
    False. In a greenstick fracture one side of the bone is broke, the other side is bent.
  104. T or F. The olecranon is the deep socket that holds the head of the femur to form the hip joint.
    False. The acetabulum is the deep socket that holds the head to the femur to form the hip joint.
  105. T or F. Cancellous bone tissue is arranged in rings around a central canal that houses nerves and blood vessels.
    • False. Cancellous bone tissue is made up of a network of small, bony plates filled with red marrow.
    • Compact bone tissue is arranged in rings around a central canal that houses nerves and blood vessels.
  106. T or F. the skull is a part of the axial skeleton.
  107. T or F. Red bone marrow is found mostly in the central cavities of the long bones.
    False. Red bone marrow is found in ends of the long bones and at the center of the other bones. Yellow bone marrow is found chiefly in the central cavities of the long bones.
  108. Technically, "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" probably suffered from _____.
  109. The bones in a _____ joint, also called an _____ are connected by _____. This type of joint is slightly moveable.
    • Cartilaginous
    • Amphiarthrosis
    • Cartilage
  110. Depression bone markings include the foramen, the _____, the meatus, and the _____.
    • Fossa
    • Sinus
  111. Among the 6 types of synovial jointss are the pivot joint, the _____ joint, the ball-and-socket joint, and the _____ joint.
    • hinge
    • gliding
  112. the bones in an _____joint are held together by _____ connective tissue. This kind of joint is immovable and is known as an _____.
    • Fibrous
    • Fibrouss
    • Synarthrosis
  113. The bones in the freely moveable joint, called an _____ joint, have a potential space between them that is filled with _____.
    • Synoviall
    • Synovial Fluid
  114. Streptoccous and Staphyloccus are common causes of v, but not of _____, which results from an excess of uric acid _____, also known as DJD, involves calcification of the ligaments, wheras _____ involves crippling joint swelling.