arch history exam 3

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arch history exam 3
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    • Karlskirche
    • Vienna, Austria
    • 1716-25
    • Johann Berhard Fischer Von Erlach

    • Building is a composition
    • Interior: elongated oval nave, cieling with illusionistic frescos depicting St. Charles Borromeo appealing to virgin mary rather than coffering or ribs
    • Facade: dominated by dome on a drum, flanked by two columns
    • Composition of roman splendor, gothic verticalism, boroque persuasive power
    • Elements incorporated: columned portico (Roman), Trojan column, dome and drum (Papal Rome), minerets of Hagia Saphia
    • Representation of synthesis of forms, qualities, and symbolism, as well as the chimerical character of architecture
    • Chiswick House
    • London
    • 1725-29
    • Lord Burlington or Richard Boyle

    • COncieved after Villa Rotunda
    • One portico instead of 4
    • octagonal drum and dome
    • obelisks at edge of roof contain chimney flues
    • four different elevations
    • exterior staircases are different
    • interior spaces follow palladian organization but more variation of spaces
    • neo-classical order decoration
    • house is less formal and more useable than rotunda
    • Used as library and centertainment center for guests
    • Forced encountering with landscape and building
    • idea of commodite employed
    • St. genevieve (Pantheon)
    • Paris
    • 1757-90
    • Jacques Soufflot

    • First dedicated to to patron saint of Paris
    • Became Hall of Fame burial
    • Greek Portico, windowless base reflective of egypt, drum and dome of st. peters
    • central plan, lengthened at choir and portico
    • openwork structure (freestanding columns, concealed flying buttrusses)
    • gained effect of spaciousness
    • placed columnar building inside bearing-wall building
    • skelatal system had to be modified
    • Pantheon>St. Peters> St. Pauls > Patheon> Us. Captiol
    • slender columns and lots of light symbolic of enlightenment
    • Altes Museum
    • Berlin
    • 1823-28
    • Karl Friedrich Schinkel

    • First public art museum in Europe
    • Set opposite the existing palace and aresenal to the south wich created a great civic court with a wall of trees along east side
    • Facade is giant ionic colonade raised on high base and stretching full width
    • ortahgonal simplicity creates sense of urban diginity and prepares visitor for clever rigor of plan behind
    • central rotunda flanked by open courts that surronded by felxible gallery spaces
    • Cenotaph to NEwton
    • 1784
    • Boullee

    • Never built for structural reasons
    • sphere designed to be 500 ft across
    • top half preforated with holes to represent heavens and stars
    • sphere suspended inside to represent sun
    • Crystal Palace
    • London
    • 1851
    • Paxton

    • Built for half original budget
    • Built for first modern World's Fair
    • iron and glass section repeated made large sheets and walls, and made easy construction
    • 3800 tons of cast iron, 700 wrought iron, 900k sq ft glass, 600k cubic ft of wood
    • largest standing building hen completed
    • reduction of new materials
    • materials previously only used for railway stations and bridges
    • resurrected in Sydeham after exhibition
    • Biblioteque Nationale
    • Paris
    • 1858-68
    • Labrouste

    • Masonry on neo-classical exterior, iron interior
    • Reading room:9 domes, 35 ft diameter, rest on 16 slender columns
    • clerestories and oculus in each dome
    • light membrane, tent-like without traditional mass of stone
    • Red House
    • Bexleyheath, England
    • 1859-60
    • Webb

    • Complete abscense of formality found in most prominent houses of the time
    • meadering form
    • development of comfortable modern house through use of commodite
    • red brick used instead of limestone
    • harkens back to medieval domestic vernacular
    • Marshall FieldWholesale Store
    • Chicago
    • 1885-87
    • Richardson

    • Disregarded ornamentatio and isotrical trappings
    • unadorned rusticated masonry and great arched openings convey a sense of power and monumentality
    • past references may have included Toman aqueduct at Segovia Spain
    • articulated stone bearing walls hide internal and unexpresses structural iron skelaton
  1. Modern definition of history
    • enitrely modern invention of late 18th century
    • considered an optimistic and revolutionary dealing/understanding or the worl
    • all modern sensitivity and sensibility is entirely historical
  2. Historicism
    • claims there is an organic succession of developments and that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way
    • understand the past, know the future
    • not particular style-language but a method

    Counter movement in early 1800s, romanticism
  3. subdivisions of historicism
    • Neo-Classicism
    • Neo-Palladianism
    • Ecole des Beaux-Arts
    • Picturesque
    • Gothic Revival
    • Neo-Romanesque
    • Neo-Renaissance
    • Neo-Barouqe
    • All are made possible by strong historical consciousness
  4. influences on historicism
    • concept of individuality
    • inwards quality of consiousness
    • importance of temporal matters
    • intuition
    • unity of I and Universe
  5. Hiostoricism vs Eclecticism
    • Historicism is a method of how to comprehend the world as well as a method of design
    • Eclecticism is the play with styles, a jumble of style
  6. Zeitgeist
    • "Spirit of the Age"
    • concrete embodiment of the most important factors that are acting in human history at any given time, contrasts with the theological theories of activity as well as tabula rasa
  7. Johann Winkelmann
    invented architectural history
  8. Subjective, but not relative
    • subjective-having individ. experiances, property of perceptions
    • relative- idea that an element or experiance is dependant on some other aspect
    • "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder"- the eye is subjective, emphasis is that individ. experiance it. beholder is relativisit, experiance is different because many beholders look at something
  9. Johann Von Erlach
    • first modern arch
    • principle of synthesis and Chimerical Character of Arch demand attention

    principle of systhesis- synthesis of forms, qualities and symbolism, achieve something new
  10. Proportions
    • Etienne-Louis Boulée changed the Renaissance understanding of proportions (e.g. as
    • proposed by Il Vignola) when he defined “proportion as a result of “régularité”, “symétrie”, and
    • “varieté”.
  11. Monadology
    monadologism is another expression that is able to mend a radical individualist concept within a pantheistic idea of unity.
  12. The latest of Late-Baroque architecture puts greatest energy into the connecting
    of oppositional style-elements. This synthesis of oppositional elements lets the
    result to become “historical” by reason of “expansion” in time and space.
    .
  13. Chimerical Character of Architecture
    • “Entwurff einer Historischen Architektur” is first arch history book
    • chimerical [imaginary, unreal, fanciful]
  14. iron and steel
    • iron-landscape gardening
    • greenhouses used iron for framing
    • Cast iron- strength, fire resistance, plastic qualities, building made were not considered skyscarpaers due to lack of lateral support
  15. James Bogordus
    Burham and Root
    Chicago School
    Gustave Eiffel
    • borgordus- european i beam section
    • burham and root- randy mcnally building first true skyscraper
    • schicago school- chicago high rise archiects of 1875-1925
    • eiffel- eiffel tower was largest iron construction, and bridges, garabit viaduct over truyere river (1889),

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