infectious diseases

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infectious diseases
2011-03-27 13:12:37
infectious diseases

infectious diseases
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  1. individual who first introduced an infectious agent to population
    index case
  2. toxic waste products released by living bacteria
  3. organism capable of cauing disease
  4. ordinarily nonharmful bacterium that causes disease only under unusual circumstances
    opportunistic pathogen
  5. organisms that live inside our bodies without ordinarily causing disease
    normal flora
  6. toxic products released when bacteria die and decompose
  7. disease causing organism seen only with electron microscope
  8. ordinarily nonharmful bacterium that causes disease only under unusual circumstances
    opportunistic pathogen
  9. method of differentiating types of bacteria according to their reaction to a chemical stain process
    gram stain
  10. microscopic single celled organism, prokaryotes. reproduce independently but require a host
  11. smaller than bacteria aka: obligate intracellular parasites, grow and reproduce within host cell
  12. particles of protein, folded in such a way that protease enzymes cannot act on them. cause of mad cow disease, aka slow virus
  13. enzymes that beak down protein
  14. yeast, molds, mushrooms are
  15. single celled parasitic organism with flexible membranes and the ability to move
  16. parasite that is 1 - 10 mm long and lives in the distal colon
  17. parasite that attaches to the host's instestinal lining
  18. disease resulting from an infestation of Trichinella spralis. from eating raw uncooked pork
  19. 4 routes of infection
    bloodborne, fecal oral route, airborne, sexual
  20. the risk of infection is considered theoretical if
    transmission is acknowledged to be possible but has not actually been reported
  21. the risk of infection is considered measurable if
    factors in the infectious agent's transmission and their associated and their associated risks have been identified or deduced from reported data
  22. capable of being trasmitted to anther host
  23. presence of an agent only on the surface of the host without penetrating ti
  24. diseases transmitted by oral fecal routs
    • hepatitis A
    • food poisoning
  25. diseases that are opportunistic
    • pneumonia
    • strep throat
  26. presence of an agent within the host, without necessarily causing disease
  27. an organism's strength or ability to infect overcome the body's defenses
  28. host's ability to fight infection
  29. factors affecting disease transmission 5
    • –Mode of entry
    • –Virulence
    • –Number of organisms transmitted
    • –Host resistance
    • –Other host factors
  30. Phases of the Infectious Process 4
    • –Latent period
    • –Communicable period
    • –Incubation period
    • Seroconversion and the window phase
    • –Disease period
  31. time when a host cannot transmit an infectious agent to someone else
    latent period
  32. time when a host can transmit an infectious agent to some else
    communicable period
  33. time between a host's exposure to infectious agent and the appearance of symptoms
    incubation period
  34. surface protein on most viruses and bacteria that identifies them as self or nonself
  35. protein that is produced in response to and that attacks a disease antigen
  36. creation of antibodies after exposure to a disease
  37. time between exposure to a disease and seroconversion. may test negative when is infected
    window phase
  38. duration from the onset of signs and symptoms of disease until the resolution of symptoms or death
    disease period
  39. Barriers to Entry of infection or disease
    • –Intact skin
    • Respiratory system
  40. the various cells involved in the immune response are sometimes called this___. which identifies foreign materials
    Includes antigens of most bacteria and viruses
    An inflammatory response triggers mechanisms designed to remove foreign material
    RES, reticuloendothelial system
  41. white blood cells are also called ______ which consist of ____and ________
    • leukocytes
    • neutrophils and macrophages
  42. most common phagocytic white blood cell
  43. process in which certain white blood cells ingest ivaders
  44. generalized, temporary defense against a particular foreign invader is ______ which generates various forms of ___ that react against specific antigens
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • T lymphocytes
  45. specialized, permanent defense against a particular foreign antigen is _______ which results from the action of antibodies form from mature ____
    • humoral immunity
    • B lymphocytes
  46. particular antigen is remembered
    B lymphocytes, humoral immunity
  47. 5 classes of human antibodies
    • IgG - remembers an antigen, crosses placental barrier
    • IgM - formed early in immune response
    • IgA - the main immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions (milk, respiratory, saliva,and tears
    • IgD - present on the surface of B lymphocytes, acts as an antigen receptor
    • IgE - attaches to mast cells in respiratory and intestinal tracts. play major role in allergic reactions. those with allergies have increased levels of this immunoglobin
  48. body's formation of antibodies against itself
  49. structures of the lymphatic system
    Spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and ducts
  50. antibodies aka: protect against most infectious agents to which body is repeatedly exposed
  51. newborn's protection against disease that results from the mother's transferring some of her antibodies to the fetus
    passive immunity
  52. protection against disease developed after birth as a result of a direct exposure to the disease
    active immunity
  53. the assay or laboratory measure of the amount of antibodies against a particular antigen
  54. the measure of a particular vaccine's effectiveness is reported as the antibody _________-
  55. Four phases of infection control in prehospital care
    • –Preparation for response
    • –Response
    • –Patient contact
    • –Recovery
  56. to destroy certain forms of microorganisms but not all.
  57. decontaminate
    • to destroy or remove pathogens
    • to destroy all microorganisms
  58. federal law that outlines the rights and responsibilitis of agencies and health care workers when an infectious disease exposure occures
    Ryan White Act
  59. inflammation of the liver with diffuse patchy tissue necrosis
  60. –Transmitted by fecal-oral route
    –Typically is mild; many patients are asymptomatic
    –Rarely serious and lasts 2–6 weeks
    • Hepatitis A
    • Infectious or Viral Hepatitis) (HVA)
  61. –Virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or saliva
    –Risk is significantly higher for EMS providers
    5–35% of all needlesticks result in infection
    –Vaccination is available and recommended for all EMS workers
    –60–80% of infected individuals are asymptomatic
    Serum Hepatitis) (HBV
    Hepatitis B
  62. –Primarily transmitted by IV drug abuse and sexual contact
    –Chronic infection that can cause active disease years later
    –May cause cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease
    Hepatitis C
  63. Exists only concurrently with HBV
    Hepatitis D
  64. –Similar to HVA but primarily associated with contaminated drinking water
    Hepatitis E
  65. –Newly identified virus
    –Patients who received blood transfusions who developed post-transfusion hepatitis which could not be identified
    –People with hepatitis A, B, or C can be co- or super- infected with hepatitis G
    Hepatitis G
  66. –Most common preventable infectious disease
    Most commonly transmitted through airborne respiratory droplets
  67. Development of disease normally occurs 6–12 months after infection
    Alveolar macrophages attack bacteria and attempt to “wall them off” (forming granulomas
  68. –Chills, fever, fatigue, chronic cough, weight loss
    –Night sweats
  69. acute infection of lungs including alveolar space and interstitial tissue
  70. –Viral respiratory illness that first appeared in southern China in 2002 and became a global threat in 2003
    8,098 people worldwide were affected
    774 died
    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
  71. Flexion of the neck causes flexion of the hips and knees associated associated with menningitis
    –Brudzinski’s Sign
  72. inability to fully extend the knees with hips flexed associated with menningitis
    Kernig's sign
  73. –Perform post-exposure prophylaxis within 24 hours
    Rifampin, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), or ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
  74. acute viral disease characterized by painful enlargement of the salivary glands

    –Viral Infection
    Transmitted by airborne droplets and direct contact with saliva of infected patient
    Occurs primarily in 5- to 15-year-old patients
    Painful enlargement of salivary glands
    Symptoms of cold with earache, difficulty chewing and swallowing
  75. highly contagious acut viral disease chacterized by a reddish rash that appears on the fourth or fifth day of illness

    –Viral Infection
    Highly communicable, with life-long immunity after disease
    Transmitted by airborne droplets and direct contact
    Presents similar to severe cold with fever, conjunctivitis, photophobia, cough, and congestion
  76. –Systemic Viral Infection
    Sore throat, low-grade fever, and fine pink rash
  77. –Viral Infection
    Common cause of pneumonias and bronchiolitis
    Commonly associated with lower respiratory infections during the winter
    –SymptomsRunny nose and congestion, followed by wheezing, tachypnea, and signs of respiratory distress
    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  78. severe violent cough, aka pertussis

    –Bacterial Infection
    Catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent phases
    whooping cough
  79. –Viral Infection
    Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
    Transmitted through oropharyngeal contact
    Fatigue, followed by fever, severe sore throat, oral discharges, and enlarged, tender lymph nodes
  80. –Viral Infection
    Transmitted in saliva and commonly infects the oropharynx, face, lips, skin, fingers, and toes
    Fluid-filled vesicles that develop into cold sores or fever blisters, then small ulcerations
    Fever, malaise, and dehydration may occur also.
    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1
  81. –Infection of the Pharynx and Tonsils
    Sudden onset of sore throat and fever, with swelling of the palate, tonsils, and lymph nodes
    Common in 5- to 11-year-old patients
  82. –Viral Infection Carried by Rodents
    Fatigue, fever, aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
    Severe myocardial depression
  83. –Infection of the Brain
    Typically viral in nature
    Commonly co-exists with meningitis
    –Clinical PresentationDecreased level of consciousness, fever, headache, drowsiness, coma, tremors, and stiff neck/back
  84. –Bacterial Infection of the CNS
    Infection often occurs in minor wounds and burns
    Rigidity of muscles occurs close to infection site
    Generalized symptoms include pain and stiffness in the jaw, muscle spasms, and respiratory arrest
  85. –Inflammatory Disorder
    Caused by a tick-borne spirochete
    –Stages of Disease
    Early localized
    “Bull’s eye” rash
    Early disseminated
    Spirochete spreads to the skin, nervous system, heart, and joints
    LateEncephalopathy with cognitive deficits, depression, and sleep disorders
    Lyme Disease
  86. –Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection
    Transmitted by direct sexual contact with infected partner
  87. –Bloodborne Infection
    Caused by spirochete
    Transmitted by sexual intercourse or direct contact with a lesion
  88. –Viral Infection
    Highly contagious
    Transmitted by contact
    Cauliflower-like, fleshy growths on the penis, anus, labial surfaces, and anal mucosa
    Genital Warts
  89. –Viral Infection
    Transmitted by sexual contact
    Vesicular lesions on penis, anus, rectum, mouth, vulva, buttocks, legs, and perineum
    Lesions that heal but occur throughout the patient’s lifetime
    Herpes Simplex Type 2
  90. –Parasitic Infection
    Transmitted by sexual activity and hand-to-hand contact of eye secretions
    Similar to gonorrhea
    May cause blindness, sterility
  91. –Protozoan Parasite Infection
    Transmitted by sexual contact
    Males usually asymptomatic carriers
    Vaginal discharge, irritation of the perineum and thighs, and dysuria Often concurrent with gonorrhea
  92. –Highly Contagious Bacterial Ulcer
    Transmitted by direct sexual contact
    –CharacteristicsPainful, inflamed pustule or ulcer that may appear on the penis, anus, urethra, or vulva
  93. –Bacterial Infection
    Highly contagious
    Spread by direct contact
    Caused by staphylococci or streptococci
    –Lesions most commonly occur on the extremities and joints
    –Standard precautions
  94. –Parasitic Infestation
    Commonly occurs on the scalp, trunk, or pubic areas
    –Repeated infestations may cause an allergic response Treatment
  95. –Mite Infestation
    Characterized by intense itching
    –Remove and decontaminate any clothing that may have contacted the patient
  96. aquired while in hospital
  97. –Pathogens
    Often include antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections:
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE)
    Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSE)
    Nosocomial Infections